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65 Cards in this Set

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Mycenaean
from the mainland of Greece – fearful of attack and built great fortresses
Heinrich Schliemann
German archaeologist – used Homer as a guide to find the ancient cities of Troy, Mycenae, and Tiryns
Arthur Evans
English archaeologist who was inspired by Schliemann – explored the island of Crete, looking for the palace of the mythological King Minos
wet fresco
a process where you paint on wet lime plaster
Knossos
a multistory structure with sophisticated indoor plumbing made of terra-cotta pipes – it also contained wooden columns, similar to those of the later Greeks
cyclopean masonry
huge rough stones stacked on top of one another without mortar to form architecture - the purpose was purely defensive
megaron
the reception hall of the King – the main room had a throne against the right wall and a central hearth bordered by four Minoan-style wooden columns
serving as supports for the roof
grave circle
large stone circle containing six shaft graves – each shaft is marked with a tombstone and the dead are buried at the bottom of the shafts
beehive tomb
cut into a hill, it was entered through a stone passage called the dromos – it was constructed on concentric circles of stone, each smaller than the one below – it forms a shape similar to that of its name
repousse
a method of beating metal to create a three dimensional shape
Humanism
a philosophy characterized by concern for human values and interests, distinct from (but not opposed to) otherworldly values of religion
barbarians
all non-greek speaking people
Proto-Geometric Period
they were strongly influenced by Aegean pottery – this period coincides with the end of Aegean dark ages
Geometric/Orientalizing Period
Greek vase painting becomes very geometric in design and shows influences of Mesopotamian and Egyptian art – the first human form appears in Greek art
Archaic Period
they began to experiment with the human form – vase painting was at its height, sculpture and architecture are being developed
Classical Period
this was the golden age of Greece – Athens was their cultural center – this period began with the Athenian defeat of the Persians and ends with conquest by the Macedonians and the rule of Alexander the Great – sculpture and architecture were at their height of achievement
Hellenistic Period
Alexander the Great died shortly after conquering Greece and his empire was divided among his generals – this was a very diverse period – they lost the idealism of the classical age, but gained realism
Greek Vase Painting
the only form at art that survived the Aegean dark ages – this was the early Greek’s link to the past
Black figure technique
started with a vase made of red clay – figures were painted with a slip – when the painted vase was fired at a high temperature, the slip turned black – in this process, only the figure was painted, the background was left the natural red color of the clay
Red figure technique
developed from a desire to avoid the scraping process of the black figure technique – rather than painting the figure, the background was painted – figure was left the natural color of the clay and only fine details in the figure were painted
Greek Sculpture
went through the same gradual process of development as vase painting did, however less survives – primary subject was the human body, especially the male nude
Kouros
nude male between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one, standing with one leg forward – this position was borrowed from the Egyptians and had the same stiff approach
Kore
a fully clothed female standing with her feet together – her body forms a cylindrical shape – much attention was paid to the hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry of these figures
Archaic smile
this was used at all times, even when inappropriate - the purpose of this was to add a sense of life – these figures represented life, confidence, and pride
Contraposto Position
a natural position of weight shift, where all weight is put on one leg with the other knee bent – the hips dip in the direction of the bent knee and the shoulders angle toward the weight bearing leg – a much more realistic look
Greek architecture
developed from Aegean temple plans – sculpture plays an important role – temples were built using the basic post and lintel style of architecture
Acropolis
the hill above the city of Athens – where temples were placed so they could be seen by all and given the proper respect
Doric
developed on the mainland of Greece during the archaic period – the first and simplest order to develop – columns are short and wide with no base – the capital is a simple cushion or bulb shape
Ionic
second to develop, also during the archaic period – columns are taller and thinner that the Doric order and have a decorative base between the shaft and the stybolate – the capital is in a scroll shape
Corinthian
the last to develop – wanted a capital that was the same all the way around so that there would be no obvious front or side when used on architecture where the columns went all the way around the building – inverted bell shape covered in acanthus leave
Stylobate
the upper step of the platform that the Greek temples sat upon – the columns rest on this
Entablature
the elevation of a Greek temple is described in terms of the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure – everything above the column
Capital
the area that made the transition between the shaft of the column and the area above
Volute
the scroll shape at the top of the column in the Ionic order
Architrave
the structural area just above the capital – it was the lintel, that bore the weight of the entablature
Frieze
used for sculpture
Triglyph
fluted areas that look much like the shaft of the column – the separate the metopes from one another
Metope
areas left open for sculpture
Pediment
a triangular shaped area at the top of the entablature, which also held the sculpture
Entasis
the swelling at the center of the column
Caryatids
female sculptures substituted for columns in the Ionic order
Parthenon
the centerpiece of the acropolis – the temple to the Goddess Athena
Erechtheion
unique for a Greek temple – its irregular form reflected the need to incorporate the tomb of Kekrops and other
preexisting shrines, the trident mark, and the olive tree into a single complex – each side has a different elevation
Elgin Marbles
currently housed in the British Museum in London – the removed sculptures from the Parthenon that Lord Elgin of England granted permission to remove
Etruscan art
most important for their influences and contributions to later Roman art
Tumulus
large burial mounds carved into the soft soil of the Italian peninsula
Tufa
soft volcanic rock that is easy to cut but hardens when exposed to air
Sarcophagus
cast in four sections and is of monumental size, but it contained only the ashes of the deceased
Roman Art
used as a means to illustrate the power and achievements of the government – it was political propaganda to reach people living many miles from Rome
Republican Period
established when the last Etruscan king was expelled from Rome – had a constitutional government, ruled by a senate and two elected consuls – began gradually conquering their neighbors (509 B.C.)
Empire Period
began when Augustus was made emperor (27 B.C.)
Pax Romana
Augustus established this period of peace that lasted for the next 200 years – height of the Roman empire and a time of great building projects
Augustus
son of Julius Caesar and first Roman emperor
Trajan
the first non-Italian to rule Rome – so popular that he was granted the title Optimus (the Best)
Diocletian
his troops proclaimed him emperor – he established the tetrarchy and adopted the title of Augustus of the East
Constantine
defeated his rival at the Battle of Milvian Bridge and takes power of empire – he attributed his victory to the help of the Christian God – with the Edict of Milan, he ended legal persecution of Christians
Edict of Milan
ended legal persecution of Christians
Barrel Vault
also called the tunnel vault, an extension of a simple arch, creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls
Groin Vault
cross vault, formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal size
Dome
used concrete to construct these and they usually rested on concrete cylindrical drums
Basilica
long, narrow structures that were used as the seat of law and business
Aqueduct
used to carry water from the mountains to the cities
Pantheon
built by the emperor Hadrian, this was the temple to all the Roman gods – it is a perfect sphere
Ara Pacis Augustae
alter of Roman peace and was a celebration of the Pax Romana – Augustus dedicated it to his wife Livia
Triumphal Arch
freestanding monumental arches that were used to commemorate the military victories and of the emperors