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111 Cards in this Set

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59. How fast does the SA and AV node normally fire in the individual heart cells?
AV 40-60 times a min

SA 20-40 times a min
After the blood passes through the tricuspid valve where does it go?
Into the left ventricle.
48d. What is the Tricuspid valve?
Permits blood to move from right atrium to the right ventricle and prevents backflow.
31. What is the difference between the gel layer and the sol layer found on the respiratory mucosa?
Gel-layer is thick and sticky mucus

Sol-layer is thin and watery
55d. What is the circulation of the right coronary artery?
It supplies SA Node.
Blood flow through the heart starts in the?
Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava.
48c. What is the Mitral valve?
Keeps blood from seeping back down into the left atrium.
32. How many cilia are there on a columnar cell in the respiratory tract?
200-250 that beat 1000-1300 times a minute.
48f. What are Papillary muscles?
Project inward from the walls of the ventricle and contracts when the ventricle contracts.
After leaving the right atrium where does the blood go?
It passes through the tricuspid valve.
48e. What is the chordae tendinae?
Strings that attach papillary muscles.
35. What are the primary muscles of inspiration?
Sternocleidomastoid, Pectoralis, Trapezius, Scalene
56. What are the thebesian veins?
Small viens that empty into all four heart chambers.
After leaving the superior and inferior vena cava where does the blood go?
It empties into the Right Atrium.
48a. What are the left and right atrium?
Top - to left and right auricles
33. How many lobes and segments are there in each lung?
Right Lobes - 3
Right Segments - 10

Left Lobes - 2
Left Segments - 8
69. What are 2 ways oxygen is transported by the blood and bye what percentages?
Dissolved in Plasma 5%

Bound by Hemoglobin 95%
Where does the oxygenated blood travel when leaving the lungs?
It travels through the Pulmonary veins.
48b. Left and right auricles?
Flaps
28. What is the function of the Type III alveolar ducts?
They are macrophages that are part of the immune system and they are also phagocytes.
48h. What are the aortic and pulmonic valve?
Pulmonic valve allows blood to leave the right ventricle and prevents backflow.
Aortic valve is at the base of the aorta as the left ventricle contracts the it is forced open allowing blood to leave.
After passing through the Mitral valve where does the blood go?
It empties into the left ventricle?
10. What are the boundaries of the lower airway?
The trachea and alvcoli
35. What are the accessory muscles of Expiration?
Abdominal Muscles; Internal oblique, External oblique, Transverse abdominus, Rectus abdominus

Internal Intercostal Muscles
48k. What is the Aorta?
Large artery. When the left ventricle contracts the only exit for blood.
After traveling through the pulmonary veins where does the blood go?
It empties into the left atrium.
45. The interpleural space has a negative pressure. Why?
To keep pressure equal.
15. What type of tissue is found in the pharynx?
Elastic

Cuboidal & stratified squamous epithelium
58a. In cardiac conduction what is the SA node?
Pacemaker of the heart. 60-100 beats per min, right arterial muscle.
After entering the main pulmonary artery(pulmonary trunk)which devides into Left and right pulmonary arteries where does the blood go?
It supplies both lungs with their alveoli where oxygen is obtained and carbon dioxide is released.
24. What are the main walls of the respiratory bronchioles made of?
Cubodial Cells
22. Where is the last place one finds pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and hyaline cartilage?
In the Terinal Bronchioles (generations 14-16)
61c. On a normal tracing what do T-wave's represent?
Represents ventricular repolarization (relaxation) of typical heartbeat.
After leaving the left ventricle where does the blood go?
It is pumped through the Pulmonic valve
1. What is the function of the Respiratory System?
Gains oxygen gas. Discharges CO2. Filters, warms, and humidifys inspired air. Discharges inhaled particles. Thoracic pump to return venous vlood to the right side of the heart. Maintains normal ph of 7.35-7.45
36. How does expiration normally occur?
passively - no muscles needed
61a. On normal tracing what does P-wave's represent?
Represents arterial contraction or depolarization of typical heartbeat.
After pumping through the pulmonic valve where does the blood go?
Into the main pulmonary artery(pulmonary trunk)which devides into Left and right pulmonary arteries.
9. What are the 9 cartilages in the larynx and where are they located?
Paired are for attachment of tendons and ligaments: Arytenoid, Cuneiform, Corniculate
Unpaired are for structure & support: Thyroid(largest), Crocoid, Epiglottis
3. What are the four sinuses, where are they located?
Frontal
Ethmoidal
Sephnoidal
Maxillary
48g. What are the right and left ventricles?
Lower chambers of the heart.
After emptying into the left atrium where does the blood go?
It passes through the mitral valve.
38. In terms of neuromuscular control of ventilation what is the function of the pons?
In both apneustic adn pneumotaxic centers it controls respitory rate and tidal volume.
14. What is the Carina? Where is it located?
Where the trachea split into left & right main stream bronchi.
Point of biturcation, small flap of skin that serves in caugh reflexes.
73. After H2CO3 breaks down into its constituent components in the RBC what happens to the very acidic H+ ion?
The H+ ion binds to Hemoglobin.
After emptying into the Left ventricle where does the blood go?
It is pumped through the aortic valve.
48i. What is the base and apex of the heart?
Base - top

Apex - bottom of the heart
17. What is the carnia's purpose?
small flap of skin contained in the carnia serves as a cough reflex.
48o. Moderator bands structure?
Right ventricle Muscle cord, adds strength.
After being pumped through the aortic valve where does the blood go?
Into the Aorta which supplies the body.
58d. In terms of cardiac conduction what is the bundle of His?
The impulse leaves the A.V. node and travels a short distance along the
Bundle of His (40 to 60 times per minute)
13. What type of cartlidge is found in the trachea?
Hiland
48n. What is the structure of the trabeculae?
Woven, adds strength
46. What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve at C2 & C3
48l. What is the function of the pulmonary veins?
Carry the good stuff.
25. What are the sac like pouches found on the respiratory bronchioles made of?
Simple squamous epithelium (generation 17-19)
48p. Structure of the coronary sinus?
Largest cardiac vein
38. In terms of neuromuscular control what is the function of the medula?
It maintains rythum of breathing both inspiration and expiration.
55b. What is the circulation of the anterior decending branch?
Around the heart.
5. What is the function of the turbinate bones?
Increases the surface of the nose.
55c. What is the circulation of the circumflex?
Front of the heart.
53. What two valves are the "A-V" valves?
Mitral valve and the tricuspid valve.
72. CO2 + H2O--->_______---->______+_________
H2CO3
H+
HCO3
11. How long is the trachea?
10 to 13 cm long
55e. What is the circulation of the Conus Artery?
If more than 1 right cornary arises from the sinus of valsalva the 2nd is called
Conus artery.
54. What two valves are the "semilunar" valves?
Aortic and the pulmonic valves.
73. What enzyme is found in the RBC that enables this reaction to proceed much faster than in the plasma?
Carbonic Anthydrase
16. What type of epithelial tissue lines most of the airways, including the trachea?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
48j. What is the pulmonary artery?
It brings blood back to the lungs through the right ventricle.
52. What would happen if the left ventricle should start failing?
Blood backs up into the lungs (swelling).
77. How fast do the cilia beat/min in the respiratory tract?
1000 to 1300 times a minute.
6. What are the 3 portions of the Pharynx and their function?
Nasopharynx, Larynogopharynx, and Oropharynx.
They are the passageway for food, air, and dirnk.
48m. What are the inferior and superior vena cava?
Largest veins in the body.
40. Most potent natural chemical stimulus to ventilation?
Carbon Dioxide
57. What are bronchial veins and how do they contribute to the normal shunt percentage?
by empting into the
pulmonary vein.
What are the openings into the pharynx?
2-nares, 2-eustachina tubes, 1-foccies, 1-glottis, and esophageal opening.
58b. In cardiac conduction what is the Internodal tracts?
Carries impulses from SA & AV Nodes
44. When the diaphragm drops how does or why does air enter the lungs?
The drop causes a vacum in the lungs and air rushes in to equalize pressure.

(NEGATIVE PRESSURE)
61b. On a normal tracing what do QRS represent?
Represents ventricular contraction or depolarization of typical heartbeat.
27. How many alveoli does the normal adult have?
300-400 million
48q. What is the structure of the Sinus of Valsalva?
The area located behind the aortic valve cusps.
52. What would happen if the right ventricle shold start failing?
Blood starts backing up into the extrimities.

(swelling)
58c. In cardiac conduction what is the components of Bachman's bundle?
It sends impulses to the left atrium from the right atrium.
2. What are the boundaries of the upper respiratory system?
The external nares down through and including the larynx.
70. In what ways is carbon dioxide transported?
10% dissolves into plasma, 20% binds to
Hemoglobin, and 70% is carried by the bicarbonate ion (HCO3).
43. What are Visceral pleura?
Pleura that lines the lungs.
71. What is meant by the chloride shift?
When CL (chloride ions) enter into red blood cells and HCO3 (bicarb) exits.
28. What is the function of the Type I alveolar ducts?
They provide shape and support of the alveoli.
56. How do Thebesian veins contribute to the normal shunt percentage?
By emptying into the
left atrium and left ventricle. (3-5%)
47. The lungs have two blood supplies. What are they, and where do they come from?
Pulmonary artery - right ventricle
Bronical artery - comes off the aorta
58e. In cardiac conduction what is the right and left bundle branches?
They carry impulses to their respective ventricles.
26. What type of epithelium makes up the alveolar ducts?
Simple Squamous Epithelium (generation 17-19)
60. What are perkinje fibers?
Branches form major bundle branches, makes sure all heart muscle cells receives electrical impulses 1st generated by the SA node.
51. Basic concept of what Congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema are?
Plasma, proteins and blood cells seep from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli.

Over CH
23. Where is the first place that gas exchange takes place in the lungs?
Respiratory Bronchiloes (generations 17-19)
50. How much blood is pumped from each ventricle during systole?
50-70 cc per beat is the amount of blood pumped through each ventricle.
28. What is the function of the Type II alveolar ducts?
They produce the surfactant layer lining inside walls of the Alveolar. (reduce surface)
43. What are Parietal pleura?
Pleura that lines the inside of the chest wall.
21. What is the angle of the left and right main stem bronchi as they branch off of the trachea?
Left 45-55 degrees

Right 20-30 degrees
41. What does Ventilation mean?
movement of air in and out of the lungs
20. If one was to asperate a peanut, what lung is it most likely to enter?
Right Lung due to the angle
41. What does respiration mean?
The exchange of gases in the lungs.
19. How many generations are there in the lung?
Twenty-Five
37. What muscles are used during strenuous exercise or in patients with lung disease to aid expiration?
Internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominus, and rectus abdominus.
29. What are the pores of Khon? Where are they found and what is their function?
They are microscopic holes of alveoli walls, Allows equal gas distribution of air.
55a. What is the left main coronary artery?
The artery that divides into two major branches.

Sinus of valsalva, conus artery

(Anterior decending branch & circumflex)
30. What does the bronchial glands produce?
Thin, watery layer.
4. What is the function of the nose?
Aids in phonation plus warm, filter, and humidify incoming air.
12. How many cartlidges are there in the adult trachea?
18 -22 C or U shaped found in the anterior wall.
30. What does the Goblet cells produce?
Thick sticky mucus.
7. List the 3 sets of tonsils and where they are located.
Adenoid (pharyngeal)-nasopharynx
Lingueal-base of the tongue
Palentine-sides of the foccies