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74 Cards in this Set

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80. What % of water is reabsorbed from the large intestine?
90%
56. What are Kupffer cells?
Cells remove any bacteria that may have been absorbed through the intestinal walls.
67. What are the crepts of Lieberkuhn and what do they act on?
The intestinal glands at the base of the villi of the small intestine, secrete a watery fluid.
21. What is the name of the hole wher the esophagus enters the diaphragm?
Esophageal hiatus
77. What is the ileocecal valve and where is it located?
Located in the Cecum.
63. How long is the small intestine?
5-6 meters long.
74. How long is the large intestine?
1.5 meters long
22. How long is the stomach?
25-30 cm's long
82. How often does peristalsis occur in the large intestine?
2-3 times a day.
66. In which portion of the small intestine does the most digestion and absorption take place?
Jejunum
73. What are the two movements of the small intestine?
Segmentation, Peristalisis
24. What region of the stomach can air bubbles be found?
Fundic
81. What bacteria are actually synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine?
Vitamins B-12, K, thiamin, and riboflavin
27. What is the function of somatostatin?
Releases from pyloric region of the stomach which stimulates gastric glands further.
71. What are proteins broken down into?
Amino acids
20. How long is the esophagus?
25 cm's long
76. What are the 3 major portions of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, retum
45. What is enterokiase, what does it do, and where is it secreted?
It is scereted by the small intestine converts trypsinogen into the active trypsin.
68. What is the placae circularis?
In the small intestine many tubular folds of mucosa.
17. What two types of cells are found in salivary glands? What do they secrete?
Serous-amylase

Mucus-mucus
78. What are the 3 portions of the colon?
Ascending
Transverse
Descending
Sigmoid
65. What are villi & microvilli found in the small intestine?
Mucosal wall covered with finger like projections called villi, found in the duodenum.
70. What are the 3 major microvilli digestive enzymes and what do they act on?
Peptidase-breaks down proteins into amino acids.
Sucrase-malfase, lactase, split double sugars.
Intestinal lipase-breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
15. Name the 3 salivary glands.
Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual
69. What are Brunner's glands?
Specialized mucus secreting glands called Brunner's glands which secrete an alkaline substance.
58. What is contained within bile?
Water, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, electrolytes.
75. What is the major functions of the large intestine (2)?
Reabsorbs water, and various electrolytes.
13. What are the bones the teeth develope in?
Alveolar Process
35. What is the name of the semi-fluid paste that food is mixed into by the stomach?
Chyme
12b. How many secondary teeth are there?
32
43c. What enzyme does the Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase digest?
Protein splitting enxymes
6. What is the tongue used for?
Connected to the floor of the mouth by frenulum.
Composed of skeletal muscle.
Aids chewing, contains taste buds.
base of tongue connected to the hyoid bone.
Papillae are rough projections on the tongue to aid in food handling.
25. What are the 3 types of secretory cells found in the stomach and what do they secrete?
Mucus-secreting cells.
Chief cell-secrets digestive enzymes.
Parietal-secrets HCI.
12. How many primary teeth are there?
20
46. What of the bicarbonate ions secreted by the pancreas, what does this do?
Pancreatic juice also secretes biocarbonate ions to counter the acidic PH of chyme.
11. What are the three sets of tonsils, and where are they located?
Palatine-Largest, at the foccies.
Lingual-base of the tongue.
Pharyngeal-also called adnoids, internal nares or nasal opening into pharynx.
61. What is the function of the bile salts?
Aids digestive enzymes, enhances absorption of fatty acids, and certain fat soluble vitamins.
10. What two bones make up the hard palate?
Maxilla
Mandible
51. What is meant by deamination?
Removal of nitrogen molecule.
8. What is the function of the palatine muscles?
Contract during swallowing to close off nasal passages (choana)
26. What is the function of intrinsic factor?
release from parietal cells also that is needed to insure vitamin B-12 absorption in the small bowel.
2. What structures make up the alimentary canal?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.
54. What are the functional units of the liver called?
Hepatic lobules
7. What is the frenulum?
Connects the midline of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
37. What is the enterogastric reflex?
Triggered which inhibits peristalsis where by slowing food from entering the small intestine.
9. There is a soft palate and a hard palate, where are they located?
Anterior-hard
posterior-soft
They form the roof of the mouth.
51. What is ferritin?
Iron is stored.
4. What are the two types of movements through the alimentary canal?
Mixing

Propelling
55. What are the vascular channels called?
Hepatic sinusoids
5. What are the functions/purposes of the mouth?
Mastication, speech, organ of pleasure.
32. What happens when this hormone is released?
Decreases intestinal mobility.
3. What accessory organs make up the digestive system?
Salivary glands, gall bladder, pancreas, liver.
44. What are zymogen granules?
Protein splitting enzymes are stored within tiny cellular structures.
1. What are the two components of the digestive system?
Alimentary

Accessory
33. In addition, when fats enter the small intestine, intestinal somatostatin is released. What does this do?
Decreases gastric secretions.
16. What digestive enzyme is found in saliva that begins digestion of carbohydrates?
Serous
53. What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
Guadate
Caudate
Left & right of both.
29. What is gastrin and what is its function?
Release from pyloric region of the stomach which stimulates gastric glands further.
40. The pancreatic duct unites with what duct after leaving the pancreas?
Common bile duct.
31. What hormone is released from the intestinal wall as fats and proteins enter the small intestine?
Hormone cholecystokinin
62. What vitamins are more easily absorbed because of bile?
A, D, E, and K
47. In terms of autonomic system control of the digestive system, what does the parasympathetic and sympathetic system do?
Autonomic nervous system controls release of saliva.
causes inhibition of somatostatin which increases HCl release and pepsinogen release.
36. How long can fatty foods stay in the stomach after a meal?
6 hours
48. What is the function of cholesystokinin and where is it secreted from?
released from intestinal wall as fats and proteins enter the smal lintestine, decreases motility of the intentine.
57. What secretes bile other than the liver?
Gallbladder and the Duodennum.
30. What are the three stages of gastric secretion?
Ceptic
Gastric
Intestional phase
64. What are the 3 portions of the small intestine?
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
28. What branch of the autonomic nervous system inhibits somatostatin and when this occurs, what happens when somatostatin is inhibited?
parasympathetic nervous system causes inhibition of somatostatin which increases HCl release and pepsinogen release.
49. What are the 3 major functions of the liver?
Carbohydrate metabolism.
Lipid metabolism.
Protein metabolism.
34. Name at least 3 stages of gastric secretion?
Water, glucose, ETHO, salts, certain lipid soluble drugs.
43a. What enzyme does the Pancreatic amylase digest?
Carbohydrate digesting enzyme breaks down molecules of starch or glycogen into double sugars.
59. What are the two bile pigments?
Bilivubin
Biliverdin
52. What is the falciform ligament?
Fold of visceral peritoneum that separates the lobes and attaches the liver to the abdominal wall anteriorly.
43b. What enzyme does the P. lipase digest?
Breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides.