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87 Cards in this Set

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42d. How is water absorbed?
Water is primarily reabsorbed by osmosis in the proximal convoluted tubule.
4. What is the basic anatomic structure and appearance of the Kidney?
Brownish red, concave and convex shaped.
55. What is the capacity of the urinary bladder?
600 ml's
15. What are the functions of the kidneys?
This organ regulates BP, pH, and absorption of Ca.
23o. Terra Forma?
????
6. What is the renal pelvis?
The funnel shaped sac of the kidney's.
52. What is meant by micturition?
Urinary reflex, urination, and desire to urinate are described as micturition.
3. In terms of vertebrae landmars, where are the kidneys located?
Located at about the 12th thoracic to 3rd lumbar vertebrae.
54. What are the two types of nephrons and what is their function?
Cortical and juxtamedullary
7. What is the hilum?
The entrance of the renal sinus.
51. What 4 layers are found in the wall of the urinary bladder?
Mucous coat
Submucous coat
Musular coat
Serous coat
8f. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal pyramids?
The renal pyramids of the renal medulla form the Renal papillae.
23a. Glomerulus?
Where osmotic pressure of blood plasma is found.
8c. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Major calyces?
The major calyces are divided into 8-14 smaller tubes called Major calyces.
41. Cl, HCO3, and PO4 are passively reabsorbed. What does passive reabsorption mean and how does it occur?
Active transport of Na occurs, and water follows along. Cl, HCO3, and PO4 follow Na along passively due to the opposite chemical charges.
8g. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal colunms?
Outer region of the kidney dips into the renal medulla between the renal pyramids to form the renal colunms.
48. What three layers are found in the ureter?
Mucous coat with transitional epithelium.
Muscular coat (peristalsis).
Fibrous coat (connective tissue).
13. What are the masses of tissue located in the renal medulla called and what do they do?
Composed of masses of tissue called renal pyramids that form the Renal papillae.
49. What is the Trigone area of the urinary bladder?
In the internal floor of the urinary bladder a triangular area.
8b. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the renal pelvis.
The funnel shaped sac of the kidney. Divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces
47. How long are the ureters and where are they attached?
25 cm's long, extends from the kidney and joins beneath the urinary bladder.
8h. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the nephron?
The functional units of the kidneys found in the renal cortex (waste eliminator).
39. Beginning with Renin, how is Angiotensin-2 formed?
Angiotensinogen a plasma protein circulating in the blood. This reaction forms
Angiotensin -1 which then reacts with, ACE produced by the pulmonary capillaries forming, Angiotensin - 2
12. How many minor calyces per kidney are there in the human?
The major calyces are divided into 8-14 smaller tubes.
50. What are the detrusor muscles?
The muscular coat of the urinary bladder that have bundles of smooth muscle.
8e. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Papillae?
A series of projections extended into the minor calyces that have openings.
38. Where is the Macula Densa located, what does it monitor, and where is renin released?
distal convoluted tubule comes in closed contact with the afferent and efferent arterioles that supply the kidney, controls Renin release, monitors the concentration of
NA, K, and CI ions
16. Where does the renal artery arise from that enters the kidney?
Arises from the abdominal aorta and enters the kidney at the hilum.
42b. How is amino acids absorbed?
Amino Acids absorbed in PCT by active transport.
8c. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Major calyces?
Renal pelvis, divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces.
35. By far, glomerular filtration is most dependent on what factor?
Hydrostatic pressure
17. What are the smaller arteries that the renal artery branch into?
The renal arteries branch off into the
interlobar arteries branch off into the
Arciform arteries
branch off into the
Interlobular arteries
arteries branch off into the
afferent arterioles branch off into the
Nephron
42. Where is ADH produced, where is it formed, and what does it do to urinary output, and how does it do this?
Hypothalamus produces ADH,ADH increases permeability of the DCT and Collecting ducts allowing water to be reabsorbed thereby decreasing urinary output
2. How long are and wide are the kidneys?
12 cm's long & 6 cm's wide
42a. How is glucose absorbed?
Glucose absorbed in PCT by active transport.
1. What are the 4 components of the urinary system?
Kidneys
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra
36. If the afferent arteriole is contracted and the efferent is dilated, what will happen to urinary output?
Contraction of the efferent, or relaxation of the afferent arteriole greatly increases this hydrostatic pressure, increases urinary output.
14. What are nephrons and where are they located?
The functional units of the kidneys found in the renal cortex.
37. What two systems are involved in regulation and filtration?
Sympathetic, renal baroreceptors
8d. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the Minor calyces?
The major calyces are divided into 8-14 smaller tubes called the Minor Calyces.
45. What is urea and uric acid crystals?
Contain nitrogen wastes. uric acid is found only in trace amounts in the urine and is in the crystal form
8a. Relationship, location, and order of which gives rise to the ureter?
Extends form the kidney and joins beneath the urinary bladder.
39. After Renin is released, what does it react with?
Angiotensinogen-1 a plasma protein circulating in the blood.
10. How many ureters does the human have?
Two
What substances are secreted by tubular secretion into urine?
Penicillin, histamine, creatinine, and hydrogen ions are secreted.
11. How many major calyces per kidney are in the human?
Renal pelvis, divided into 2-3 large tubes called the major calyces.
21. What is the glomerulus and where is it located?
Cluster of tiny capillaries, it is surrounded by a sack-like structure called the Bowman's capsule.
4. What is the renal sinus?
The hollow chamber or cavity of the kidney.
23e. Ascending loop of Henle?
Distal convoluted tubule.
9. What are the medulla and cortex of the kidney?
Cortex-The outer region of the kidney.
Medulla-The inner region of the kidney.
28. What are juxtaglomerular cells, what is their function, and what do they secrete?
???
54. What are the two types of nephrons?
Cortical and juxtamedullary
34. What is osmosis and how is osmotic pressure increased?
When a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration.
The higher solute concentration, the higher the osmotic pressure.
52. How is sodium reabsorbed?
Active transport
40. What is Atrial Atriuretic Factor?
Hormone released by the atria in response to increased stretching due to increased blood volume.
58. How long is the male urethra?
Prostatic
Membranous
Penile
Prostatic-2.5 cm's

Membranous-2 cm's

Penile-15 cm's
29. What is the peritubular capillary system?
Efferent arteriole surrounds proximal and distal c. tubules.
50. What are the two main functions of the nephron?
Removes waste products from blood, regulates water and electrolyte concentration.
18. How many nephrons are there in each kidney?
1 million nephrons in the kidneys.
51. How much is filtered per day out into Bowman's capsule?
45 gallons per day, or about 125 ml's per minute.
33. What two factors oppose filtration out of the glomerulus?
Osmotic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure
58. How long is the female urethra?
4 cm's long
27. What is the macula densa & where is it found?
The region where juxtaglomerular apparatus and afferent/efferent arterioles come in contact.
55. What is the function of Aldosterone and where is it located?
Released from the adrenal glands and slows down Na excretion.
23h. Papillary duct?
short ducts that open on the tip of the renal papillae. They are formed by the union of the straight collecting tubules.
56. At what volume does the desire to urinate begin?
150 ml's
26. What is the juxtaglermerular apparatus & what is it composed of and where is it found?
Controls the blood flow through the kidney. Renin is released when blood pressure drops.
53. How does the kidney help regulate pH?
Hydrogen ions are secreted by active transport.
20. What does the renal corpuscle consist of?
Clusters of tiny capillaries called a glomerulus.
25. What are pedicels, what do they form?
Tiny processes on the podecytes that form openings called split pores.
24. What are podecytes, where are they found?
Found on the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule and proximal convoluted tubule. Form a network, form split pores.
31. What are the three processes of urine formation?
Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion
30. What are vasi recti?
Peritubular capillary system connects with the tubules themselves which are called VASI RECTI.
19. What is the nephron made up of?
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule.
23i. Minor calyx?
Papillary duct which empties into a minor calyx.
32. What are the fenestrae and where are they found?
Holes contained inside the glomerular capillaries and help the filtration process.
53. Where are the internal and external urethral sphincters located and which one is voluntary?
The voluetary skeletal muscle located about 3 cm's from the bladder.
23m. Urinary Bladder
???
22. What is the Bowman's capsule, where is it located, what is its function?
Bowman's capsule is like a funnel that drains into the proximal convoluted tubule.
42c. How is albumin absorbed?
Albumin protein in PCT by pinocytosis into brush border which is then broken down into Amino Acids.
41. What is the function of the peritubular capillary system?
Tubular Reabsorption
46. What causes gout?
Increased uric acid concentration.
43. Describe the counter-current mechanism seen in the loop of Henle.
ascending and descending loops lie very close to each other. The epithelium of the ascending loop is very thick, juxtamedullary nephrons. The descending loop is surrounded by hypertonic fluid.
23g. Collecting duct?
Many collecting ducts join together, forming a papillary duct which empties into a minor calyx.
23d. Decending loop of Henle?
Proximal convoluted tubule.
23n. Urethra?
Contains numerous urethral (mucus) glands.
23i. Minor Calyx?
???