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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What are the five major aspects of psychological diagnosing?
1. Description
2. Prognosis
3. Epidemiology
4. Explanation (etiology, maintenance, course)
5. Treatment (rx)
2. What is epidemiology?
Scientific study of frequency and distribution of disorders w/in a population
3. What was involved in the supernatural/mystical approach?
Abnormalities came from evil spirits and treatment involved exorcism

Medicine man or shaman contacted evil spirit to remove it or curse it
4. What was an early approach to somatic treatment?
5. What was involved in the psychogenesis approach?
Abnormality was the result of how one feels, thinks, and/or perceives the world

Treatment: psychotherapy
6. What did psychotherapy involve?
It involved examining behavior and thinking in order to modify it
7. How were the mentally disturbed treated during the 16th century?

What changed in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Increase in humanism/knowledge but generally mentally disturbed were punished

Scientific method came
8. What were some early uses of the scientific method?

1. Physiognomy: phrenology of Gall
2. W. Cullen: neurotic behavior due to physical defects
3. Mezmer: treated disturbed behavior with magnets
9. How were the disturbed treated in the 19th century?
In Great Britain there was greater acceptance of humanitarianism for mentally disturbed (built asylums away from towns)

In U.S. reform was slower (B. Rush and Dorothea Diz)
10. By the 1850's there was a reversal of the moral treatment movement why?

Three reasons
1. Money and staff shortage
2. Declining recovery rates
3. Lack of more effective treatment for severely mentally ill
11. What two perspectives competed against one another in the early twentieth century?
1. Somatogenic Perspective: abnormal f(x) due to physical cause
2. Psychogenic Perspective: abnormal f(x) has psychological cause
12. What two factors were responsible for the reemergence of the somatogenic perspective?
1. Emil Kraeplin's textbook argued that physical factors lead to mental dyfunction

2. Several biological factors were made such as the link bwt untreated syphilis and general paresis
13. What two things gave rise to the popularity of the psychogenic perspective?
1. Mesmer and hysterical disorders

2. Freud
14. What was discovered in the 1950's?

What did this lead to?
Psychotropic meds discovered

-outpatient care
-some new problems
A1. What is a correlation study?
It studies the relationship or association between two variables
A2. What is the experimental method?
A experiment is a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated (IV) and the manipulations effect on another variable is observed (DV)

*can apply rules of statistics
A3. What is a confound?
Any variable that affects the DV that is not under the researcher's control and typically is not known about
A4. What is a multiple baseline design?
It examines tow or more dependent variables for change when an IV is introduced
A5. In quasi experiments do researchers randomly assign subjects to groups?

What do they do?
They use groups that already exist

To address problems of confounds, they use matched groups
A6. What are "matched" groups?
These groups are "matched" to the experimental group based on demographic and other variables
A7. What is an artifact?
A result that is due to a confound rather than the IV
A8. What are three ways to minimize the risk of confounds?
1. Random assignment

2. Double-blind procedures

3. Estimating placebo effects
B1. What are the three paradigmatic approaches?
1. Psychogenic
2. Social
-interpersonal and family systems
3. Somatic
-neuroscience and psychophysiology
B2. What is the basis for the psychodynamic model?
Underlying psychological forces are cause of abnormal behavior

Rests on deterministic assumption that no symptom or behavior is "accidental"
B3. What three things are associated with the behavioral paradigm?
1. Associative (classical conditioning)
2. Reinforcement (operant)
3. Social learning (modeling)
B4. What is operant conditioning based upon?
The idea that behavior is a function of its consequence

Contingency allows us to infer consequences
B5. What is positive reinforcement?

What is negative reinforcement?
Positive if rate of behavior increases when S is presented

Negative if rate increases when S is removed
B6. What do cognitive paradigms assume?
Over behaviors originate in cognitive processes
-maladaptive assumptions
-causal attribution especially about control
-automatic thoughts
B7. How do biological theorists explain abnormal behavior?
illness brought on by malfunctioning parts of the organism (usually brain)
B8. What are the three sources of biological abnormalities?
1. Genetics

2. Evolution

3. Viral Infections (mutations)
B10. What are the methods used in behavioral genetics?
1. Separated twin design

2. Non-twin adoption design

3. Classical twin designs
C1. What is reliability?
A measure of the consistency of test or research results
C2. What is validity?
Accuracy of a test or study's results (extent to which test or study actually measures or shows what it claims)
C3. what is concurrent validity?
Degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with measures gathered from other assessment tools
C4. What happens during assessment?
Information is gathered and the goals are a differential diagnosis (specific dx), understand the individual, formulate treatment plan, and give prediction/prognosis
C5. What is the most basic and frequently used method of assessing?
Clinical Interview
C6. What are some problems with interviews?
1. Reliability varies with type

2. Validity b/c limit to self report (subjective)
C7. What are six other kinds of clinical tests?
1. Projective tests
2. Personal inventories
3. Response inventories
4. psychological test
5. Neurological and neuropsychological tests
6. Intelligence tests
Abnormal Psychology?
Scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
A neurotransmitter that has been linked to depression and dementia
Acute Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experience soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month
Physical dependence on a substance, marked by such features as tolerance, withdrawal symptoms during abstinence, or both
An experience of emotion or mood
A program of posthospitalization care and treatment in the community
An anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable if paniclike symptoms were to occur
1D. What is the diagnostic criteria for Schizophrenia
Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period

-disorganized speech
-grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
-negative symptoms such as affective flattening, alogia, or avolition
D2. What are the percentages for the types of hallucinations that schizophrenics have?
70% of ppl with schizo experience hallucinations
-auditory (60%)
-tactile (40%)
-visual (33%)
-gustatory/olfactory (least common)
D3. What are some examples of disorganized or catatonic behavior?
1. Formal thought disorders

2. Loose associations

3. Neologisms (made up words)
D4. What is paranoid schizophrenia?
Organized system of delusions and auditory hallucination
-little overlap with other categories
-onset relatively late
-better prognosis than other types
D5. What is catatonic schizophrenia?
Disturbances in motor activity
-waxy inflexibility or extreme psychomotor excitement
-rarely seen
-poor prognosis
D6. What is undifferentiated schizophrenia?
Must show 3 symptoms of schizophrenia, but not fit other 3 subtypes
D7. What is the prevalence of schizophrenia
0.5 to 1%
D8. What is the psychodynamic view of causation for schizophrenia?
Develops from two psychological processes:
1. regression to a pre-ego stage
2. efforts to reestablish ego control

*no evidence for this view
D9. What is the behavioral view of causation for schizophrenia?
Operant Conditioning
-lack of reinforcement for attention to social cues

*no evidence for this view
D10. What is the cognitive view of causation for schizophrenia?
Biological factors cause the symptoms but cognitive factors exacerbate symptoms and lead to new ones:
-faulty interpretation; misunderstanding by confident lead to feelings of paranoia

*no evidence
D11. What is the sociacultural view of causation for schizophrenia?
Social labeling influences the symptoms

Family Dysfunction: double-blind hypothesis

Relapse: due to families high in expressed emotion
E1. What are the most helpful forms of psychotherapy for treating schizophrenia?
Insight therapy, social therapy, and family therapy

*works best in conjunction with medication
E2. What type of therapist is most successful in insight therapy?
Those who take an active role, set limits, express opinions, and challenge the patients' statements
E3. What does family therapy try to address?
Address issues like having high expresses emotion, create more realistic expectations, and provide psychoeducation about the disorder
E4. What percentage of people recovering from schizophrenia live with family members?
E5. What types of things does social therapy address?
Includes practical advice, problem solving, decision making, social skills training, medication management, employment counseling, financial assistance, and housing

*this approach reduces rehospitalization
E6. When did congress pass the Community Mental Health Act?

What does it say?
Passes in 1963

Said that patients should be able to receive care within their own communities, rather than being transported to institutions far from home
E7. What are the consequences of inadequate community treatment?
1. 8% enter alternative care facility (nursing home)
2. 18% placed in privately run residences (untrained employees)
3. 31% in single room occupancy in rundown places
4. many become homeless (1/3 of homeless have schizophrenia)
F1. How do theorist explain paranoid personality disorder?
Psychdynamic: demanding parents (distant fathers/rejecting mothers)
Cognitive: hold broad maladaptive assumptions
Biological: genetic cause
F2. How many people are believed to experience paranoid PD?

What is the sex ratio?
0.5 to 3% experience it

More men than women
F3. How do theories explain schizoid personality disorder?
Psychodynamic:roots in unsatisfied need for human contact (unaccepting or abusive parents)

Cognitive:deficiencies in thinking (vague and empty)
F4. What percent of the population is believed to have schizoid PD?

What is the sex ratio?
Present in fewer than 1% of population

Slightly more likely to occur in men and men may be more impaired by it
F5. How do theorist explain schizotypal PD?
-Family conflicts and psychological disorders in parents are linked to it
-Defects in attention and STM may contribute
-Some of the same biological factors found in schizophrenia
F6. How many people are estimated to have schizotypal PD?

What is the sex ratio?
2 to 4% of all people

Slightly more in males than females
F7. How do theorists explain anti-social PD?
Psychodynamic: absence of parental love during infancy (ppl with anti-social PD are more likely than others to have had significant stress in childhood)

Behavioral: modeling

Cognitive: hold attitudes that trivialize importance of other's needs

Biological: ppl w/ this disorder experience less anxiety than most
F8. What percent of people in the US meet the criteria for anti-social PD?

What is the sex ratio?

Four times more common in men
F9. How do theorists explain borderline PD?
Early parent-infant relationship
-parental neglect
-parental sexual/physical abuse (four times more likely to develop disorder)
Family stressors: divorce, alcoholism
Biological: lower serotonin levels and abnormalities in sleep
Biosocial theory
F10. What is the biosocial theory?
Disorder results from a combination of internal forces and external forces
F11. What is the treatment of choice in borderline PD?
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
-therapist actively and supportively try to help clients increase their ability to tolerate distress, learn new social skills, and respond more effectively to life situations
F12. What is the dynamic psychodynamic approach to treating borderline PD?
Begin therapy in the present and then confront client about distortions
-deal with "splitting
F13. Do medications help treat borderline PD?
Antidepressants, antibipolars, antianxiety, and antipsychotic drugs have helped calm the emotional and aggressive storms
F14. What percentage of population is believed to suffer from borderline PD?

What is the sex ratio?
1.5 to 2.5%

75% of patients who receive diagnosis are women
F15. How do theorists explain histrionic PD?
Unhealthy relationships in which cold and uncontrolling parents left them feeling unloved and afraid of abandonment

Cognitive: self-focused and emotional

Sociocultural: produced in part by society's norms and expectations
F16. What is the treatment for histrionic PD like?
-People w/ disorder usually seek out treatment on their own
-Working with them can be hard though b/c they can be demanding, have tantrums, etc.
-Ultimate aim is to make client more self-reliant
-Medicine is ineffective unless used to treat depression symptoms
F17. What percentage of adults have histrionic PD?

What is the sex ratio?
2% of adults

males and females equally affected
F18. How do theorists explain narcissistic PD?
Cold, rejecting parents
-abused children or those that have lost parents through adoption, divorce, or death

Cognitive/Behavioral: treated too positively rather than negatively

Sociocultural: family values and social ideals produce self-centered/materialistic youth
F19. What percentage of adults display narcissistic PD?

What is the sex ratio?
1% of adults

75% are men
F20. How doe theorists explain avoidant PD?
Same causes as anxiety
-early traumas, conditioned fear, upsetting beliefs, or biochemical imbalance
F21. What is the psychodynamic view on avoidant PD?
-trace back to childhood (maybe bowel or bladder accidents)
-shame makes them feel unlovable and distrusting of other's love
F22. What is the cognitive view on avoidant PD?
Harsh criticism and rejection in early childhood may lead certain people to assume that others in their environment will always judge them negatively
F23. What is treatment like for avoidant PD?
Come to therapy in hope of finding acceptance and affection but many soon begin to avoid sessions
-distrust therapists sincerity
-start to fear his or her rejection

Treat as treat people w/ anxiety disorders and social phobias
F24. What percentage of adults have avoidant PD?

What is the sex ratio?
1 to 2% of adults

Men as frequently as women
F25. How do theorist explain dependent PD?
-Unresolved conflict during oral stage
-Early parental loss or rejection may prevent normal experiences of attachment and separation
-Parents unintentionally reward children for clingy behavior
-Dichotomous thinking and maladaptive attitudes
F26. How do theorist explain obsessive-compulsive PD?
-Anal regressive
-Cognitive say illogical thinking processes help keep it going
-Explanations that borrow heavy from from those for obsessive-compulsive diosrder
F27. What percentage of the population displays obsessive-compulsive PD?

What is the sex ratio
2 to 5%

Usually white, educate, married, and employed

Men are twice as likely as women to display disorder