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54 Cards in this Set

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Clovis
Warrior king of the Franks
Medieval
Middle Ages in Europe or the period of history between ancient and modern times
Franks
The Germanic tribes that conquered parts of the Roman empire
Charles Martel
Rallied Frankish warriors to overcome the Muslim army
Battle of Tours
The battle where the Christians overcame the Muslims, led by Charles Martel
Charlemagne
Grandson of Charles Martel, king of the Franks, also known as Charles the Great
Magyars
Ethnic group centered in present-day Hungary
Vikings
Scandinavian peoples whose sailors raided Europe from the 700s through the 1100s
Feudalism
Loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords
Vassals
Lesser lords that pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord
Feudal Contract
The political and economic relationship between lords and vassals based off of an exchange of land for loyalty and military service
Fief
An estate a powerful lord gave to his vassal
Knight
A mounted warrior
Tournaments
Mock battles engaged by knights
Chivalry
Code of conduct
Troubadours
Wandering musicians that sang about the brave deeds of knights and their devotion to their lady loves
Manor
The lord's estate, which was the heart of the feudal economy
Sefs
Peasants that bound the lord's land
Sacrament
The sacred rites of the Church
Benedictine Rule
Rules that regulated the monastic life, which was used by monasteries and convents across Europe
Secular
To be worldly
Papal Supremacy
Authority over all secular rulers, including kings and emperors
Canon Law
The Church's own developed body of laws
Excommunication
Could not receive the sacraments or a Christian burial, which condemned them to hell for eternity
Interdict
An order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial
Friars
Monks who did not live in isolated monasteries
St. Francis of Assisi
An Italian wealthy man who founded the first order of the friars
Charter
A written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town
Partnerships
Groups of merchants joined together
Tenant Farmers
Paid rent for their farmland
Middle Class
The class ranked between nobles and peasants
Guilds
Associations formed by merchants and artisans
Apprentice
Trainee
Journeymen
Salaried workers
William the Conqueror
Became the king of England on Christmas Day 1066 by beating Harold
Common Law
A legal system based on custom and court rulings
King John
Son of Henry II
Magna Carta
Great charter, contained two important ideas that would shape English government in the future
Due Process of Law
By legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land
Habeas Corpus
The principle that no person can be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime
Parliament
Became England's legislature made up of English rulers which were also known as the Great Council
Louis IX
King of France who persecuted heretics for his strong religious beliefs
Holy Roman Empire
Ruled lands from Germany to Italy
Henry IV
King of Germany and later became Holy Roman emperor
Gregory VII
Pope at the time Henry IV was on the throne as emperor
Lay Investiture
The emperor or another lay person invested, or presented, bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their offices
Frederick Barbarossa
Red Beard, dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea
Pope Innocent III
Took office in 1198, claimed supremacy over all rulers
Crusades
Religious wars between the Muslims and the Christians
Holy Land
Contained of Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Jesus lived and preached
Pope Urban II
Declared war on the Islamic people to claim the Holy Land for themselves
Reconquista
Reconquest, the campaign to drive the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula
Ferdinand and Isabella
Made a final push against the Muslim strong hold of Granada, which was successful, which made the Reconquista complete
Inquisition
A Church court set up to try people accused of heresy