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### 51 Cards in this Set

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 absolute location latitude & longitude coordinates latitude lines run east/west parallel to the equator. describes how far north something is. degrees of longitude lines 0 degrees = equator 90 degrees = Poles east/west latitude lines run north/south they touch the poles called meridians Where is the Prime Meridian? 0 degrees Where is the International Date Line? (mostly) 180 degrees What are degrees divided by? 60 minutes (either long. or lat) _ _ minutes=1 degree 60 minutes in 1 degree _ _ seconds=1 minute 60 seconds in 1 minute _ _minute of latitude= 1 nautical mile 1 minute of latitude= 1 nautical mile _ _ degree of latitude=60 nautical miles 1 degree of latitude=60 nautical miles What are circles determined by? By the tilt of the axis of the Earth 23.5 degrees what is the degree of the Tropic of Cancer? 23.5N what is the degree of the Tropic of Capricorn? 23.5 S where are the 2 places the sun never rises or sets for at least 1 day a year? Arctic Circle & Antarctic Circle What is the degree of the Arctic Circle? 66.5N What is the degree of the Antarctic Circle? 66.5 S What is "Great Circles"? the place where the plane which is defined by any 2 points on the Earth and the center of the Earth intersects the surface of the Earth True North refers to what? North Pole (on the Earth's axis) Magnetic North refers to what? The Earth Magnetic north pole - in Greenland (most compasses pt toward the magnetic north pole) What is Magnetic Declination? the difference between true N and magnetic N. What are transition zones? where realms meet what are the 6 (4) elements of geography? -places & regions -physical systems -human systems -environment & society What is "the rust belt? In the North/East side of the country was called this b/c there was heavy industry there. Functional region A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; b/c it usually focuses on a central node. Continental drift The slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics. Tectonic plate Continents are 'rafts' of relatively light rock that rest on slabs of heavier rock. Ice age Lasts tens of millions of years chills the planet and causes massive ecological change. Glaciation repeated advances of continental ice sheets Interglacials The truly warm phases, when the ice recedes poleward & mountain glaciers melt away. Desertification The process of desert expansion into neighboring steppelands as a result of human degradation of fragile semiarid environments Population distribution The way people have arranged themselves in geographic space. Urbanization The proportion of a country's population living in urban places is its level of urbanization. Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. State A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is reorganized by a significant portion of the international community. European State Model A state consisting of a legally defined territory inhabited by a population governed from a capital city by a representative gov. Development The economic, social, and institutional growth of national states. Core Area The largest population cluster, the the most productive region, and the part of the country with the greatest centrality and accessibility. Periphery The contrasting spatial characteristics of, and likages between, the have (core) and have-not (periphery) components of a national or regional system. Nation-state A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity Nation a term encompassing all the citizens of a state. a group of tightly-knit people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, & other shared cultural attributes Climate The long-term conditions of aggregate water over a region, summarized by averages and measures of variability. Climatic region A Humid equatorial Climatic region AF No dry season Climatic region Am Monsoon Climatic region Aw Dry Winter Climatic region B Arid Climatic region C Humid temperature Climatic region D High cold Climatic region E Polar cold Climatic region H Highland