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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The image intensifier's input phosphor is generally composed of

A. cesium iodide.
B. zinc cadmium sulfide.
C. gadolinium oxysulfide.
D. calcium tungstate.
A. cesium iodide.
Which of the following is (are) valid evaluation criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?

1. The radius and the ulna should be superimposed distally.
2. The coronoid process and the radial head should be partially superimposed.
3. The humeral epicondyles should be superimposed.
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following statements is (are) correct with respect to evaluation criteria for a PA projection of the chest for lungs?

1. The sternoclavicular joints should be symmetrical.
2. The sternum is seen lateral without rotation.
3. Ten anterior ribs are demonstrated above the diaphragm.
1 only
In the PA projection of the chest, there should be no rotation, as evidenced by symmetrical sternoclavicular joints. The shoulders are rolled forward to remove the scapulae from the lung fields. Inspiration should be adequate to demonstrate 10 posterior ribs above the diaphragm (the anterior ribs angle downward; the tenth anterior rib is the last attached to the sternum and is very unlikely to be imaged on inspiration). The sternum should be seen lateral without rotation in the lateral position of the chest.
The body habitus characterized by a long and narrow thoracic cavity and low, midline stomach and gallbladder is the

A. asthenic.B. hyposthenic.C. sthenic.D. hypersthenic.
A. asthenic.
When comparing the male and female bony pelves, it is noted that the

1. male pelvis is deeper.
2. female pubic arch is greater than 90°.
3. female greater sciatic notch is wider.
1, 2, and 3
Male pelvis

Heavy and thick general structure

Greater, or false, pelvis is deep

Pelvis brim, or inlet, is small and heart-shaped

Acetabulum is large and faces laterally

Pubic angle is less than 90°

Ilium is more vertical

Female pelvis

Light and thin general structure
Greater, or false, pelvis is shallow
Pelvis brim, or inlet, is large and oval
Acetabulum is small and faces anteriorly
Pubic angle is more than 90°
Ilium is more horizontal
During myelography, contrast medium is introduced into the

A. subdural space.B. subarachnoid space.C. epidural space.D. epidermal space.
subarachnoid space.
During intravenous (IV) urography, the prone position is generally recommended to demonstrate

1. the filling of ureters.
2. the renal pelvis.
3. the superior calyces.
1 and 2 only
Place the following anatomic structures in order from anterior to posterior:

1. Trachea
2. Apex of heart
3. Esophagus
Apex of heart, trachea, esophagus
In a lateral projection of the nasal bones, the central ray is directed

A. 1/2 inch posterior to the anterior nasal spine.B. 3/4 inch posterior to the glabella.C. 3/4 inch distal to the nasion.D. 1/2 inch anterior to the EAM.
C. 3/4 inch distal to the nasion
Nam body habitus types into order from largest to smallest.
(A) Hypersthenic

(B) Sthenic

(C) Hyposthenic

(D) Asthenic
The most significant risk factor for breast cancer is:

A. age.B. gender.C. family history.D. personal history.
B. gender.
While performing mobile radiography on a patient, you note that the requisition is for a chest image to check placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter. A Swan-Ganz catheter is a (n)

A. pacemaker.B. chest tube.C. IV catheter.D. urinary catheter.
C. IV catheter.
Before bringing a patient in the radiographic room, the radiographer should

1. clean the x-ray table and change the pillowcase.

2. assemble the accessories needed for the examination.

3. warm the x-ray tube anode.
1 and 2 only
During measurement of blood pressure, which of the following occurs as the radiographer controls arterial tension with the sphygmomanometer?

A. The brachial vein is collapsed.B. The brachial artery is temporarily collapsed.C. The antecubital vein is monitored.D. Oxygen saturation of arterial blood is monitored.
The brachial artery is temporarily collapsed.
A radiologic technologist can be found guilty of a tort in which of the following situations?

1. Failure to shield a patient of childbearing age from unnecessary radiation
2. Performing an examination on a patient who has refused the examination
3. Discussing a patient's condition with a third party
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the lateral projection of the lumbar spine?

1. The MSP is parallel to the tabletop.
2. The vertebral foramina are well visualized.
3. The pedicles are well visualized.
1 and 3 only
In which of the following procedures is quiet, shallow breathing recommended during the exposure to obliterate prominent pulmonary vascular markings?

1. RAO sternum
2. Lateral thoracic spine
3. AP scapula
1, 2, and 3
A quantity of medication introduced intravenously over a period of time is termed

A. an IV push.B. an infusion.C. a bolus.D. hypodermic.
B. an infusion.
Quantities of medication can be dispensed intravenously over a period of time via an IV infusion. A special infusion pump may be used to precisely regulate the quantity received by the patient. An IV push refers to a rapid injection; the term bolus refers to the quantity of material being injected. The term hypodermic refers to administration of medication by any route other than orally.
During an intravenous urogram, the RPO position is used to demonstrate the

1. left kidney parallel to the IR.
2. right kidney parallel to the IR.
3. right kidney perpendicular to the IR.
1 and 3 only
Since the kidneys do not lie parallel to the IR in the AP, the oblique positions are used during IV urography to visualize them better. With the AP oblique projections (RPO and LPO positions), the kidney that is farther away is placed parallel to the IR, and the kidney that is closer is placed perpendicular to the IR. Therefore, in the RPO position, the right kidney, being closer, is perpendicular to the IR. The left kidney, the one farther away, is placed parallel to the IR
In the 15° medial oblique projection of the ankle, the

1. tibiofibular joint is visualized.
2. talotibial joint is visualized.
3. plantar surface should be vertical.
2 and 3 only
The medial oblique projection of the ankle can be performed either as a 15° to 20° oblique or as a 45° oblique. The 15° to 20° oblique demonstrates the ankle mortise, that is, the articulations between the talus, tibia, and fibula. The 45° oblique opens the distal tibiofibular joint. In all three cases, the plantar surface must be vertical
That ossified portion of a long bone where cartilage has been replaced by bone is known as the

A. diaphysis.B. epiphysis.C. metaphysis.D. apophysis.
The answer is C.

EXPLANATION: Long bones are composed of a shaft, or diaphysis, and two extremities, or epiphyses. In the growing bone, the cartilaginous epiphyseal plate is gradually replaced by bone. The ossified growth area of long bones is the metaphysis. Apophysis refers to vertebral joints formed by articulation of superjacent articular facets.
Which of the following is (are) characteristics of the x-ray tube?

1. The target material should have a high atomic number and a high melting point.
2. The useful beam emerges from the port window.
3. The cathode assembly receives both low and high voltages.
1, 2, and 3
An esophagogram might be requested for patients with which of the following esophageal disorders/symptoms?

1. Varices
2. Achalasia
3. Dysphasia
1 and 2 only
Which of the following occurs during Bremsstrahlung radiation production?

A. An electron makes a transition from an outer to an inner electron shell.B. An electron approaching a positive nuclear charge changes direction and loses energy.C. A high-energy photon ejects an outer-shell electron.D. A low-energy photon ejects an inner-shell electron.
The answer is B.

EXPLANATION: Two types of interaction between high-speed incident electrons and the tungsten target atoms account for the production of x-rays within the x-ray tube. (1) In the production of brems ("braking") radiation, a high-speed electron is attracted to the positive nuclear charge of a tungsten atom. In doing so, it is "braked" and gives up energy in the form of an x-ray photon. Most of the primary beam is made up of brems radiation. (2) If the incident electron were to eject a K-shell electron, an L-shell electron would move in to fill the vacancy. It releases a photon (K characteristic ray) whose energy equals the difference between the K- and L-shell energy levels. This is characteristic radiation; it is responsible for only a small portion of the primary beam.
If a radiographer continues a lumbar spine examination after the patient states that he or she does not want to finish the examination, that radiographer can be found guilty of

A. assault.B. battery.C. false imprisonment.D. defamation.
C. false imprisonment.
All of the following bones are associated with condyles except the

A. femur.B. tibia.C. fibula.D. mandible.
C. fibula.
Federal regulations regarding infection control in the workplace, as amended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), make the following requirements:

1. Hepatitis B immunizations must be made available to all hospital employees.
2. Puncture-proof containers must be provided for all used needles.
3. Follow-up care must be provided to any staff accidentally exposed to blood splash/needle stick.
C. 2 and 3 only
Routine excretory urography usually includes a postmicturition radiograph of the bladder. This is done to demonstrate

1. tumor masses.
2. residual urine.
3. prostatic enlargement.
1, 2, and 3
Unopened boxes of radiographic film should be stored away from radiation and

A. in the horizontal position.B. in the vertical position.C. stacked with the oldest on top.D. stacked with the newest on top.
B. in the vertical position.
What information, located on each box of film, is important to note and has a direct relationship to image quality?

A. Number of films in the boxB. Manufacturer's nameC. Expiration dateD. Emulsion lot
C. Expiration date
If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph is such that it allows 1% of the illuminator light to pass through the image, that image has a density of

A. 0.01.B. 0.1.C. 1.0.D. 2.0.
D. 2.0
If an x-ray image is placed on an illuminator and 100% of the illuminator's light is transmitted through the image, that image must have a density of 0

If 10% of the illuminator's light passes through the image, that image has a density of 1. If 1% of the light passes through the image, that image has a density of 2.
The type of shock associated with pooling of blood in the peripheral vessels is classified as

A. neurogenic.B. cardiogenic.C. hypovolemic.D. septic
The answer is A.

EXPLANATION: The type of shock associated with the pooling of blood in the peripheral vessels is classified as neurogenic shock. This occurs in cases of trauma to the central nervous system that results in decreased arterial resistance and pooling of blood in peripheral vessels. Cardiogenic shock is related to cardiac failure and results from interference with heart function. It can occur in cases of cardiac tamponade, pulmonary embolus, or myocardial infarction. Hypovolemic shock is related to loss of large amounts of blood, either from internal bleeding or from hemorrhage associated with trauma. Septic shock, along with anaphylactic shock, is generally classified as vasogenic shock
The function(s) of the fixer in film processing is (are) to

1. remove the unexposed silver bromide crystals.
2. change the unexposed silver bromide crystals to black metallic silver.
3. harden the emulsion.
1 and 3 only
Geometric unsharpness is influenced by which of the following?

1. Distance from object to image
2. Distance from focus to object
3. Distance from focus to image
1, 2, and 3
What pixel size has a 2048 x 2048 matrix with an 80-cm FOV?

A. 0.04 mmB. 0.08 mmC. 0.2 mmD. 0.4 mm
D. 0.4 mm
Any images obtained using DXA bone densitometry

1. are used to evaluate accuracy of the ROI.
2. are used as evaluation for various bone/joint disorders.
3. reflect the similar attenuation properties of soft tissue and bone.
1 only
All of the following statements regarding dual x-ray absorptiometry are true, except

1. radiation dose is considerable.
2. two x-ray photon energies are used.
3. photon attenuation by bone is calculated
1 only
Radiographic recorded detail is directly related to

1. SID.
2. OID.
3. imaging-system speed.
1 only
SID is directly related to recorded detail because as SID increases, so does recorded detail (because magnification is decreased). OID is inversely related to recorded detail because as OID increases, recorded detail decreases. As screen speed increases, recorded detail decreases, as a result of greater diffusion of light. Therefore, of the given choices, only SID is directly related to recorded detail. OID and screen speed are inversely related to recorded detail
The risk of inoculation with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered high for the following entry sites:

1. Broken skin
2. Shared needles
3. Conjunctiva
1 and 2 only
Which of the following conditions describes a patient who is unable to breathe easily while in the recumbent position?

A. DyspneaB. ApneaC. OrthopneaD. Oligopnea
C. Orthopnea
Which of the following pathologic conditions require(s) a decrease in exposure factors?

1. Pneumothorax
2. Emphysema
3. Multiple myeloma
1, 2, and 3
All three pathologic conditions involve processes that render tissues more easily penetrated by the x-ray beam. Pneumothorax is a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. Emphysema is a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by an increase in the size of the air-containing terminal bronchioles. These two conditions add air to the tissues, making them more easily penetrated. Multiple myeloma is a condition characterized by infiltration and destruction of bone and marrow. Each of these conditions requires that factors be decreased from the normal to avoid overexposure
Component part(s) of x-ray film include the following:

1. Phosphor layer
2. Gelatin emulsion
3. Adhesive layer
2 and 3 only
The developer temperature in a 90-second automatic processor is usually about

A. 75° to 80°F.B. 80° to 85°F.C. 85° to 90°F.D. 90° to 95°F.
D. 90° to 95°F.