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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3. What is the relationship between tacting one's own behavior and self awareness? (p. 314)
Our own VB can be a controlling variable for further VB or provides stimuli for tacts- we can tact our own behavior (I said that wrong, quickly, slowly, etc.)
4. What is the term "autoclitic" designed to suggest? (p. 315)
Designed to suggest behavior that is based upon or depends upon other verbal behavior
1. What is a descriptive autoclitic? What does it describe? (p. 315 = see also p. 322)
Descriptive Autoclitic: The speaker emits collateral responses describing VB of oneself or others at the moment or in the past and the immediate effect upon the listener in modifying his reaction to the behavior they accompany establishes a distinctive pattern.

Better definition from pg. 322- The descriptive autoclitic indicates something of the circumstances in which a response is emitted or something of the condition of the speaker, including the strength of his verbal behavior.
Give examples of the following autoclitics: (a) those which inform the listener of the type of verbal behavior they accompany, (b) those which describe the state of strength of a verbal resposne, (c) those which describe the relations between responses and other verbal behavior, and (d) those which indicate the emotional or motivational condtions of the speaker (pp. 313-321).
a. Informs the listener of the type of VB they accompany: I see that it is going to rain (informs of textual response read in newspaper for instance)
b. Describe the state of strength of the response: I’m positive that it is (strong). I’m not sure if (weak)
c. Describe the relations between responses and other VB: I meant to say that it was on the left. I agree, I confess
d. Indicate the emotional or motivational conditions of the speaker:I am happy to say, I regret to inform you.
2. What is a negative autoclitic? (p. 317)

Don't confuse with negation*******
Negative autoclitics qualify or cancel the response which they accompany but imply that the response is strong for some reason. Example: I don’t think that he has gone.
1. Discuss several different examples of autoclitics which specifically mand listener behavior (pp. 321-322).
Part of the MO for the mand is a particular response on the part of the listener. The mand enjoins the listener to respond to the primary VB in a particular way.

Mands specific action on the listener- only one answer
Mands the listener to construct additional VB- Ditto
Mands a change in direction, start, stop listeners behavior- let’s begin (must assume an MO is in place)
1. What is a qualifying autoclitic? What does it qualify? (p. 322)
Qualifying autoclitics specify circumstances responsible for the speaker’s primary verbal
behavior and function to alter the intensity or direction of the listener's behavior with
respect to the primary verbal behavior.
2. What special problem in the analysis of verbal behavior is raised by such responses as, "it is not raining." What solution does Skinner propose to this problem? (pp. 322-323)
The problem is that the absence of a stimulus is evoking a response in instances of saying that it is NOT raining. A question he poses is why do we not say thousands of other responses in the absence thousands of stimuli.
3. How might a child learn to say "not"? (pp. 323-324)
Response is first acquired from the reinforcing practices of the community. First acquired under occasion when activity should be stopped if reinforcement is to be received or aversive stimulation avoided. When the child later engages in the same activity, he recreates the response upon which no is strong. Will receive generalized reinforcement for verbal responses. If result of child’s NO the child ceases to behave, it may be automatically reinforced by the reduction of conditioned aversive stimulation. Later the behavior of saying NO is extended to verbal responses. When saying a response followed by a listeners NO the child may transfer this to own verbal behavior. It may start first as correction following the emission of a response, but may later accompany a response as an autoclitic. A response such as No-red, red-No as described on pg. 324 may eventually become the response NOT.
4. Why is negation considered a qualifying autoclitic? Give some examples. (pp. 322-236)
5. Explain why expressions containing 'not' and affixes such as "-less" may not indicate any autoclitic activity in a given instance. Why may genuine negation be as rare as genuine metaphorical or metonymical extension? (pp. 325-326)
Responses containing not or affixes such as –less might not indicate autoclitic activity in a given instance because they are emitted in standard form. An example is the addition of –less to sun making sunless when there was a grey sky, now the grey sky is the stimulus for the response sunless in standard form.
6. Why is assertion considered a qualifying autoclitic (p. 326
Strengthens the listeners response. .An autoclitic will sharpen the effect by indicating some of the sources of strength as well as the degree of strength.
Discuss examples of each of the following assertive autoclitics: (a) those which indicate that the response is emitted as a tact, (b) those which indicate that certain limits of stimulus control have been respected, (c) those which indicate the kind or degree of tact extension, and (d) those which indicate the probability or correspondence between a future event and the controlling stimulus (pp. 327-328).
a. Indicate that the response is emitted as tact:
b. Indicate that certain limits of stimulus control have been respected:
c. Indicates the kind or degree of tact extension: it’s sort of green
d. Indicate the probability or correspondence between a future event and controlling stimulus:
1. What is a quantifying autoclitic? Give several examples. Why are "a" and "the' considered autoclitics? (p. 329-330).
Quantifying autoclitics indicate the relation between the controlling stimuli and speakers response They indicate the quantity or specificity of the controlling stimuli for the verbal response and therefore modify the range of application of a listener’s response.

A and the are considered autoclitics because they function to narrow the reaction of the listener by indicating the relation between a response and the controlling stimulus.
1. What is a relational autoclitic.
Indicates to the listener the relationship between sequential verbal responses. They may be viewed as a type of autoclitic tact.
What is tagging (relational autoclitic), give an example.
Tags are suffixes that indicate to the listener how to relate responses. Example: Dale’s pencil indicates the possession of the pencil by me. Also Dale jump(s) the “s” indicates action.
What is grouping (relational autoclitic), give an example.
In grouping, responses occur in close temporal proximity to indicate how to relate responses together. Example: the brown bear mauled the running man opposed to the running bear mauled the brown man. English is especially dependent upon grouping.
2. What are the functions (autoclitic and non-autoclitic) of the final “s”, “’s” and “s’” in common English nouns (p. 333).
“S” as in jumps, serves function of a minimal tact. The noun (Dale) posseses the ability to jump. It also serves as a relational autoclitic in its agreement with the form of the verb.‘s serves the function of a minimal tact indicating singularity, but also serves the autoclitic function of denoting possession.
4. How are autoclitic frames established and how do they function? (p. 336)
Relational aspects of the situation strengthen a frame and specific features of the situation
strengthen responses that fit into it Can be conceptualized as a higher-order operant occasioned by a situation. Partially conditioned autoclitic frames combine with responses appropriate to a specific situation. Having responded to many pairs of objects with behavior such as the hat and the shoe and the gun and the hat, the speaker may make the response the boy and the bicycle on a novel occasion. We must assume that by learning the boy’s ____ (any of the above), that the any response possessed by the boy is available.
Define manipulative autoclitic.
Manipulative autoclitics direct the listener to arrange or relate their reactions to the verbal response in a particular way. They may be viewed as a type of autoclitic mand.
What is an autoclitic frame?
C. Manipulative autoclitics
1. Explain the autoclitic function of
i. “but” as in “All but Henry left the room.- of either a single response.
ii. “and” as in “This for you and me.”-
iii. “if” as in “if it does not rain, we shall go.”-
i. enjoins the listener to exclude something, or to make an exception

ii. enjoins the listener to add to what has been said, whether a single response is to be added.

iii. Concerns the defining properties of the stimuli controlling the responses, or some relation to them (if this then that relationship)
Describe the two listener responses evoked by verbal stimuli.
Conditioned reflexes through respondent conditioning- Listener reacts to the verbal stimulus with conditioned reflexes, usually of an emotional sort

Discriminated operants- taking action appropriate to a given state of affairs.
Describe how verbal stimuli or nonverbal stimuli paired with verbal stimuli can acquire an eliciting function.
Verbal stimulus: Pairing a verbal stimulus such as the word shock (neutral stimulus) with an unconditioned stimulus such as an actual shock- In the future the verbal stimulus “shock” will elicit the same physical and emotional stimuli that the electric shock did.

This is no different than the traditional respondent conditioning of a non-verbal stimulus in which the bell (neutral stimulus) was paired with the unconditioned stimulus of an electric shock which in the future, the bell will elicit the same reactions that the shock did.
Describe how verbal stimuli may alter the discriminative or reinforcing function of nonverbal stimuli.
write about caterpillar example????
What is pliance?
What is tracking?
What is augmenting?
What is rule governed behavior
Provide an account of how RFT explains stimulus equivalence. (1 paragraph)
Give an account of how naming explains stimulus equivalence. (1 paragraph)
What is joint control? give an example.
Know at least 1 of chomsky's major criticisms of VB.