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55 Cards in this Set

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Democrat-
a person with liberal views on political issues and is forward thinking (promotes change)
Republican
a person who is part of the Republican party who believes in a more conservative approach to politics; this person sees the constitution as a truthful and binding document
Political Party
is a group people who share the same ideas about the way the country should be governed.
Spectrum
classifies one or more political positions on an axis supporting different political ideals (ie. Right wing and left wing)
State
a group of people who are bound together by similar political ideas and beliefs
Nation
a group of people who are bound together by race, language, customs, and religion (culture)
Nation-State-
this is the coming together of a state and a nation to create a country with similar political and cultural beliefs
Sovereignty
When a government creates and enforces its own laws, without the authority of another state/government or a state has supreme authority its government (within its boundaries)
Social Contract Theory-
Social Contract is an agreement between the government and its people that the people will give up some of their everyday freedoms to the government. In return, the government will protect those freedoms
Evolution Theory
The head of the family served as the authority and the “extended” family made up the citizens. This theory failed when the citizens needed more organization and leadership
Force Theory
The state would not exist without the need to defend against the enemy. People then cooperate with authority to survive
Aristotle
the first Greek philosopher who studied government and democracy (government for the people)
Thomas Hobbes-
Negative outlook on humans in their natural state
- Believed humans are cruel, brutish, and nasty
- People should surrender all of their freedoms to the government
- In return, they will get order and protection
- Free humans = chaos
John Locke
Positive outlook on humans in their natural state
- People have THREE natural rights
- Life, Liberty, and Property
- ie. the gov’t cannot hinder these rights
- People can rebel against unjust rulers
- People can learn from their mistakes and improve themselves
Israel
became a sovereign nation in 1948 when the Jewish population created their own independent nation from Palestine.
Economic Decision Making-
The government helps to regulate the economy to ensure overall growth for both producers and consumers.
Promoting Social Order
the governments means of educating its citizens on laws, punishments, and how to function properly in society.
Promoting Public Service
– the services that the government provides to its people to maintain a clean and livable environment for its people.
Maintaining National Security
this is the governments way of protecting its citizens, both at home and abroad (homeland security, police, TSA)
unitary system-
All of the government power and decision making is done in the central government (one government system or political party)
federal system-
Political power and decision making is separated between the central government and state and local governments.
constitutional government-
this is a government that is ruled by a constitution and all those involved in the state/government are bound to that constitution.
Confederacy-
a loose union of independent states (Articles of Confederation)
interdependence/globalization-
the interconnectedness of countries around the world; socially, politically, and economically
constitution
a document which provides the specific rules or framework for a government
preamble
the introduction statement of a constitution which states goals and purposes that the government will serve to its country
politics
- is the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of a government
amendment
this is an official change or addition made to a constitution.
constitutional law
This is the field of study that questions how the Constitution should be interpreted. Studies specifically the relationship between the three branches of government
Autocracy
a government in which only one person contains all the power/decision making ability for the state.
Monarchy
one person, or family has all of the power in the form of a king, queen, or emperor.
Absolute Monarchy
one person is given the divine right (God given right) to rule over its people, usually through a family blood line. This person has complete control of the state.
Constitutional Monarchy
This is when the king and queen serve a country as figure heads and the political decisions are made by a prime minister(executive) and a legislative group (House of Commons in Great Britain).
Totalitarian Dictator
This is a single ruler who rules by force. A totalitarian dictator rules all aspect of public and private life, or the total society)
Democracy-
rule is by the people.
Direct Democracy-
This is when decisions are made directly by people and their majority vote.
Indirect Democracy
This is when the people vote for representatives in which they agree with on social, political, and economic beliefs.
Republic
the head of state is chose by the people, but there are limitations on those people in the form of a Constitution.
Oligarchy-
this is a government led by a small group of people
Theocracy-
This is a government that is led by religious leaders or a religious group.
Majority rule-
a political principle providing that a majority, usually constituted by fifty percent plus one of an organized group will have the power to make decisions binding upon the whole
Free Elections-
Everyone’s vote carries equal weight, all candidates can express their views freely, citizens are free to help candidates (financially), and legal requirements to vote are kept to a minimum
Political Party
- there are people with similar political views who organize to win elections, operate government, and influence public policy.
Free-Enterprise/Market Economy
A completely free market is an idealized form of a market economy where buyers and sellers are allowed to transact freely (i.e. buy/sell/trade) based on a mutual agreement on price without state intervention in the form of taxes or regulation.
Mixed Market Economy-
This type of economic system includes a combination of private economic freedom and centralized economic planning and government regulation.
Command Economy-
A system where the government determines what goods should be produced, how much should be produced and the price at which the goods will be offered for sale. The command economy is a key feature of any communist society.
Traditional Economy
this is an economy that is based of traditions, customs, and beliefs. This is usually in the form of a trade and barter system.
Economics-
is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Laissez-Faire
an economic idea presented by Adam Smith that the government will take a hands off approach to economic regulation and interference.
Capitalism-
an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods. Economic decisions are determined by private decision, prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.
Adam Smith
the father of modern economics who created the idea of Capitalism and the free market. He wrote The Wealth of Nations, describing the advantages of a free market economy.
Socialism
a system or ideology of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state
Communism
a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production
Bourgeoisie
members of the middle class
Proletariat-
members of the working class