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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are the specific functions of the urinary system?

remove metabolic waste of blood,recover water and useful solutes,promote red blood cell production, synthesis glucose

What are the structures that make up the urinary system?

Adrenal gland, left kidney, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, ureter, urinary bladder

What is the kidney's role in the urinary system?

Kidney's remove waste from the blood by forming urine

What is a nephron?

Functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through these strucutures, glomerular filtrate passes through before emerging as urine.

Nephrons filter blood and produce urine

What are the components of the nephron?

Renal corpuscle, Proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubal, loop of Henley-both descending and ascending loops, collecting duct (can help withdehydration)

What are the 3 main parts to the nephron?

Renalcorpuscle, renal tubule, blood vessels of nephron

What is the renal corpuscle?

Structure where blood is filtered

What is the renal tubule?

Structure where blood is processed into urine

What is the function of the blood vessels in the nephron?

Deliver blood to nephrons so that it can be filtered and to absorb any desirable molecules eg water, also to remove waste

The renal corpuscle is made up of 2 main parts. What are they? What do they do?

Glomerulus and glomerular capsule (bowmans capsule) Glomerulus-A cluster of capillaries,Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule-2 layered epithelial membrane that lines theglomerulus

What is the key role of the renal corpuscle?

Filter blood through filtration membrane

The filtration membrane is made up of 3 layers. What are these

Epithelial cells in capillaries of glomerulus, basement membrane, cells of visceral layer of glomerulus which cover glomerular capsule

What does the basement membrane look like?

Mesh panel like structure covering capillaries

Which layer is the podocyte located in?

Glomeruler capsule-located in visceral layer

What are the three main sections of the renal tubule?

Proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, Loops of Henley

What is the proximal convoluted tubercle lined with?

Cubodial epithelial tissue

What does the proximal CT do?

Absorbsmost of the water and up to 100% of solutes so you don’t end up urinatingbuckets of urine

The upper section of the loop of Henley is made up of cuboidal epithelial? T OR F?


The lower section of the loop of Henley is made up of cuboidal epithelial?

Falseit’s made up of squamous epithelial

The loop of Henley has an important function. What is it and why is it important?

Establishesa salt gradient concentration in the medulla, important for hydration- when you’redehydrated you’re trying to retain as much water as possible

The distal convoluted tubercle has capacity to switch on a certain hormone thatstimulates water reabsorption? What is this hormone called?

Anti-diuretic hormone

What are the key functions of the nephron?

Filtration of blood, reabsorption of useful materials from blood, secretion of wastes intourine

Whatis the process involved in the glomerular filtration

Fluid filtered from blood enters the spaceenclosed by two layers of glomerular capsule- cells and large molecules such asprotein are retained in blood protein

How does tubular reabsorption work to produce urine?

Through osmosis, diffusion and active transport, selected molecules are reabsorbed in renal tubercle

Does most reabsorption occur in the proximal convoluted tubercle? T OR F?


Where does the rest of re absorption occur?

Loop of Henley

Which osmotic region of the kidney maintains a high salt concentration? Medulla or Cortex?


The anti-diuretic hormone is released by the pituitary gland.What does thishormone aim to do?

Stimulatescells of distal convoluted tubercle and collects ducts to increase WATER poresin cell membranes

Where is ADH made?

In the hypothalmus

Glomerulus is found in the nephron? What is it?

Glomerulus is a network of capillaries located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney. Serves as the first stage in the filtering process of the blood carried out by the nephron in its formation of urine.