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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Biomedical Model of Health

Involves trying to diagnose and treat illnesses and conditions once symptoms are present. It is sometimes referred to as the "band-aid" or quick fix approach. It centers around doctors, health professionals and hospitals who administer treatment.

Social Model of Health

Is an approach to health that attempts to address the broader influences on health (social, cultural, environmental and economic factors) rather than disease and injury itself.

5 Principles of the Social Model of Health

1. Empowers individuals and communities

2. Addresses the broader determinants of health

3. Involves intersectoral collaborations

4. Acts to reduce social inequities

5. Acts to enable access to healthcare

Health Promotion

"The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health." -WHO

-focuses on prevention rather than cure

-uses the causes of disease as the starting point, rather than the disease itself

Advantages of Biomedical Model of Health

Creates advances in technology and research; many common problems can be effectively treated; extends life expectancy; and improves quality of life.

Disadvantages of Biomedical Model of Health

Relies on professional health workers and technology and is therefore costly; doesn't always promote good health; not every condition can be treated; affordability.

Examples of Biomedical Model of Health

Surgery, medication and x-rays

Advantages of Social Model of Health

Prevents the issues from occurring in the first place, includes all aspects of communities not just certain individuals.

Disadvantages of Social Model of Health

Does not immediately fix issues, can not deny the fact that people do get sick regardless.

Examples of Social Model of Health

Ottawa Charter

Ottawa Charter

Allows organisations to effectively implement strategies that focus on the social model of health and health promotion. The Ottawa charter identifies that there are certain prerequisites or basic conditions and resources that must be available if any gains in health are to occur.

Made in 1986 in Ottawa, Canada at WHO's first International Conference on Health Promotion

Prerequisites that must be available if any gains in health are to occur (as stated in the Ottawa Charter)






-Stable Ecosystems

-Sustainable Resources

-Social Justice and Equity

Advantages of the Ottawa Charter

Includes all aspects of the community, the government, the health and private health sector to create new strategies and implement those already established.

Disadvantages of the Ottawa Charter

Is not fully carried out in some places as some countries simply do not have the access to these prerequisites and do not have the knowledge to carry it out effectively.

Examples of the Ottawa Charter


5 Action Areas of the Ottawa Charter

(Bad Cats Smell Dead Rats)

1. Build healthy public policy

2. Create supportive environments

3. Strengthen community action

4. Develop personal skills

5. Reorient health services

3 strategies for health promotion as outlined in the Ottawa Charter





-One of three health promotion strategies as outlined by the Ottawa Charter

-Refers to actions that seek to gain support from governments and societies in general to make the changes necessary to improve the determinants of health for everyone

Actions can include:

media campaigns (on social media as well), public speaking, and lobbying governments to change public policies and laws for the benefit of everyone's health.


-One of three health promotion strategies as outlined by the Ottawa Charter

-Aims to reduce differences in health status between population groups by ensuring equal opportunities and resources are available to enable all people to achieve optimal health

-Must be equal between men and women, indigenous and non-indigenous, and high and low SES groups

This includes:

access to education, employment, adequate housing, nutritious food, and health care

-done by empowering people and letting them take control of their health, as handouts run out and aren't long-term effective


-One of three health promotion strategies as outlined by the Ottawa Charter

-Changes required to promote health include changes to funding, legislation and policies, and to the physical and social environment

-Changes cause conflict; mediating assists groups in resolving conflict and producing outcomes that promote health

E.g. reducing speed limits

--> not supported by all members, however working with these groups can ensure lives are saved on the road


Established by the Victorian Government and is the peak body in Health Promotion.To promote health by targeting the broader social, economic and environmental factors that influence health. VicHealth targets these influences through funding, sponsorship, research and evaluation, and advocating for health promotion policies and programs

Missions of VicHealth- need to know 3 well

-In partnership with others to promote good health

-Recognise that the social and economic conditions for all people influence their health

-Promote fairness and opportunity for better health

-Support initiatives that assist individuals, communities, workplaces and broader society to improve wellbeing

-Seek to prevent chronic conditions for all Victorians

VicHealth Strategic Priorities- PEPPI

1.Promote healthy eating

2. Encourage regular physical activity

3. Prevent tobacco use

4. Prevent harm from alcohol

5. Improve mental wellbeing

VicHealth Programs- know 2 really well

1. Generating Knowledge and Respect Programs.

Respect and equality between men and women. To lower the rates of domestic violence against men and women in the community

2. Promoting a healthy message. Includes sporting club participation, social groups and connections grow and lower consumption and substance abuse and allows young members to get a job and look after themselves through the use of physical exercise.

3. Motion Program. Think creatively about health. Increase understanding on emotional, social and physical benefits of the arts. Crowd Play, Tangle, Dance with me, ….Edens, Flash mobs, Giant Theremin. Allows individuals to connect with others and get fit. Improve relationships and self-esteem. Encourages people to get fit and think of creative ways to exercise.

4.Demonstration Program. Local sporting clubs. The culture, facilities and community allows connections to grow. Encourages Healthy Sporting Environment. Promotes healthier option in canteens, intimidation free zone, smoke free zone, and gender equality programs. Encourages clubs to think about the small changes they can make, to make a big impact on the health and wellbeing of the clubs and the community.

Role of VicHealth

-Works in partnerships with organisations, communities and individuals to ensure health is an essential part of the daily lives of individuals

-Advocate for Health Promotion through Social Media/Publications/Events

-Funds over 800 projects a year

-Distributes over 23 million annually for research and evaluation of programs

-Based on the Social model of health promotion and its 5 principles

9 NHPA's (National Health Priority Areas)


-Cardiovascular Health

-Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Conditions

-Injury Prevention and Control

-Mental Health

-Cancer Control

-Diabetes Mellitus



Why these NHPA's were selected

-Because they are all preventable to some extent

-Are common throughout the population

-Improving the understanding of these cab assist in improving health status

-Selected by the commonwealth government