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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Proclamation of 1763

  • Line created by British that colonists could not cross (Appalachian Mountains).
  • Created to prevent conflicts between colonists and Native Americans.
  • Upset colonists.

French and Indian War

  • Colonists fought with Britain against France and its Indian allies
  • Britain took control of Ohio River Valley


  • Economic theory that colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country
  • Colonies provide natural resources
  • Britain did not want colonies manufacturing their own goods
  • A country wants to export more than it imports

New England Colonies

  • Trading and fishing
  • Rocky soil – no plantations or slaves

Southern Colonies

  • Plantations and slaves
  • Warm, temperate environment

Common Sense

  • Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
  • Kings are bad – colonies need independence

Natural Rights

  • Rights that all people are born with (John Locke’s Enlightenment Idea)
  • Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
  • Included in the Declaration of Independence
  • If a government violates these rights, they have the right to overthrow the gov't (Declaration of Independence)

Self-Government (Examples)

  • Mayflower Compact
  • Virginia House of Burgesses
  • New England Town Halls
  • Early forms of democracy or republics

Declaration of Independence

  • Written by Thomas Jefferson (oh yeah!)
  • Declared colonies’ independence from Britain
  • Included colonial grievances and natural rights

Revolutionary War

  • War between Britain and the colonists
  • Taxation without Representation
  • America won its Independence from Britain

Articles of Confederation

  • First plan for government (Shays' Rebellion - Rebellion in MA that exposed weaknesses)
  • Failed and replaced by Constitution
  • National government too weak & State governments too powerful
  • National government couldn’t collect taxes

Land Ordinances (1785, 1787)

  • Land Ordinance of 1785 & Northwest Ordinance
  • Set a pattern of development of new territories/states
  • Provided guidelines for new states to be admitted


  1. A written plan for government
  2. Replaced the Articles of Confederation
  3. Gave more power to the national government


  1. favored a strong national (federal) government
  2. Supported the Constitution
  3. Wrote the Federalist Papers to gain support for the Constitution
  4. Led by Hamilton


  1. Favored strong state governments
  2. Opposed ratification of Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added
  3. Led by Jefferson

Alexander Hamilton

  1. Wanted a National Bank
  2. Had a plan to get rid of the National Debt
  3. Wanted to strengthen America’s economy


  1. President’s advisors
  2. Chosen by the President
  3. Example of Unwritten Constitution (not explicitly in the Constitution)
  4. Head of national departments (Ex. Secretary of State)


  • Power is shared between the states and the national government
  • Reserved Powers = State Powers
  • Delegated Powers = National powers

Checks and Balances

  • Ways that each branch of government can control (check) the other 2 branches.
  • Examples: veto, Congress can override vetoes, impeach, appoint justices, approve appointments, approve treaties, laws ruled unconstitutional

Separation of Powers

  • National government power separated into 3 branches

  1. Legislative BranchCongress - creates laws, can override vetoes
  2. Executive Branch – President – Commander in Chief, nominates judges, vetoes/signs laws
  3. Judicial BranchSupreme Court - determines if laws are constitutional

Great Compromise

  • Compromise between New Jersey (small) and Virginia Plans (large)
  • Created a bicameral (2 house) legislative branch (Congress)

  1. Senate – 2 for each state
  2. House of Representatives – based on a state’s population

Unwritten Constitution

  • Parts of our government that are needed but not actually found in the Constitution
  • Examples: President’s Cabinet, Political Parties, Judicial Review


  • An addition or change to the Constitution
  • “Flexibility”

Elastic Clause

  • Part of the Constitution that allowed for change
  • Allows government to make laws to fit a changing society
  • Necessary & Proper Clause
  • Implied Powers
  • Examples: Louisiana Purchase, FCC, minimum wage, ect.

Electoral College

  • Each state gets electoral votes, same as number of total representatives
  • Popular vote in each state determines the electoral votes
  • Criticized because electoral vote doesn’t always reflect popular vote

Bill of Rights

  • 1st 10 amendments
  • Antifederalists wanted it added
  • Protects our rights from the government
  • Examples: Freedom of speech, religion, due process – fair trial

Washington's Farewell Address

  • Washington wanted the country to stay neutral
  • Proclamation of neutrality
  • US was not strong enough to get involved with other countries, might lose new independence

John Marshall Court

  • Supreme Court Justice
  • All decisions led to the power of the national government increasing

Marbury v. Madison

  • Supreme Court case that established judicial review - can declare laws unconstitutional

Judicial Review

  • Power of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
  • Established by Marbury v. Madison
  • Example of unwritten constitution

Louisiana Purchase

  • Doubled the size of the US
  • Bought by Jefferson
  • US farmers gained control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans

War of 1812

  • War between Britain and the US
  • Britain was impressing US sailors and arming Native Americans
  • Francis Scott Key wrote “Star Spangled Banner” about battle of Fort Mchenry

Monroe Doctrine

  • US foreign policy that warned Europe to leave Latin America alone
  • Made the US in control of the Western Hemisphere
  • 1823

Andrew Jackson

  • Used the spoils system – gave government jobs to political supporters
  • Passed Indian Removal Act – Trail of Tears
  • Nicknamed “King Andrew” (remember the cartoon) *powerful President

Manifest Destiny

  • Americans had the right to settle westward all the way to the Pacific Ocean

Women's Rights Movement

  • Goal was to get equal rights and suffrage for women
  • Organized the Seneca Falls Convention and wrote Declaration of Sentiments
  • Leaders were Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucretia Mott

Missouri Compromise (1820)

  • Settled a conflict over new states – kept balance between number of free and slave states
  • Missouri entered the Union as a slave state
  • Maine entered as a free state
  • Future states below Mason-Dixon Line are slave states; above are free states

Compromise of 1850

  • California enters as a free state
  • New Mexico territory (future slave state) is established
  • Settled a conflict over new states – kept balance between number of free and slave states

John Peter Zenger (1735)

  • Court case that established the precedent of freedom of press

Stamp Act (1765)

  • An act passed by Parliament in England meant to raise revenue for England after the French and Indian War
  • Tax on numerous paper goods, including newspapers and playing cards
  • Angered colonists

Due Process

  • The principle that an individual cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards.
  • Protection of citizens by laws

Reserved Powers of the Constitution

  • Powers reserved in the Constitution for states (e.g. education)

3/5 Compromise

  • Compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that counted each slave as 3/5 of a person for the sake of representation in Congress
  • Favored slave states

Lewis and Clark Expedition

  • Expedition from 1803 - 1805 that was meant to explore the territory purchased in the Louisiana Purchase