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14 Cards in this Set

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Wilson's 14 Points: Points 1-4

Remove factors which led to outbreak of WWI




e.g. all countries lead to disarmament, rather than arms race

Wilson's 14 Points: Points 5-13

Sought to implement self-determination

Wilson's 14 Points: Point 14

The League of Nations.




Permanent, international body. Seeks to peacefully settle international disputes

Who was present at the Paris Peace Conference?

Britain, USA, France, Italy (Vittorio Orlando was snubbed by Big Three) - more than 32 countries present

Problems facing the Statesmen

Divided aims


Time pressures


Earlier promises to other countries

Terms of the Treaty

Territorial and colonial loss




Economic punishment




Military restrictions




Guilt Clause

Territorial Loss

Alsace-Lorraine given back to France



North Schleswig given back to Denmark after plebiscite



Malmedy Eupen given to Belgium



Saarland given to League for 15 years - plebiscite after this time



Colonies redistributed to mainly Britain, France, Belgium

Economic punishment

£6.6 billion reparations over 42 years


Decided in April 1921

Military restrictions

Army of 100,000 men



Conscription banned




No armoured vehicles (tanks, aircraft, submarines)




Only 6 battleships allowed




Rhineland (area bordering France) demilitarised

Guilt Clause

Article 231




Germany and Allies accept full responsibility for: 1). All the loss and damage of the war


2). Starting the war




Added legitimacy to the other punishments placed on Germany

Who was Woodrow Wilson's successor?

Warren Harding - isiolationist

What did John Maynard Keynes believe?

Treaty was motivated by vengeance




Reparations should be set at £2 billion

Strengths of Treaty

Recognised self-determination for many peoples of Europe




Recognised need to treat Germany harshly, but not too harshly




Established a mechanism to prevent future wars




Rewarded victors, and met some of their needs

Weaknesses of Treaty

German self-determination not recognised



Gave Germany strong cause for resentment - made her feel victimised



New peacekeeping ideas were untested



Victors felt their interests were not fully recognised - wartime alliance unable to last