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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Wilson's 14 Points: Points 1-4

Remove factors which led to outbreak of WWI

e.g. all countries lead to disarmament, rather than arms race

Wilson's 14 Points: Points 5-13

Sought to implement self-determination

Wilson's 14 Points: Point 14

The League of Nations.

Permanent, international body. Seeks to peacefully settle international disputes

Who was present at the Paris Peace Conference?

Britain, USA, France, Italy (Vittorio Orlando was snubbed by Big Three) - more than 32 countries present

Problems facing the Statesmen

Divided aims

Time pressures

Earlier promises to other countries

Terms of the Treaty

Territorial and colonial loss

Economic punishment

Military restrictions

Guilt Clause

Territorial Loss

Alsace-Lorraine given back to France

North Schleswig given back to Denmark after plebiscite

Malmedy Eupen given to Belgium

Saarland given to League for 15 years - plebiscite after this time

Colonies redistributed to mainly Britain, France, Belgium

Economic punishment

£6.6 billion reparations over 42 years

Decided in April 1921

Military restrictions

Army of 100,000 men

Conscription banned

No armoured vehicles (tanks, aircraft, submarines)

Only 6 battleships allowed

Rhineland (area bordering France) demilitarised

Guilt Clause

Article 231

Germany and Allies accept full responsibility for: 1). All the loss and damage of the war

2). Starting the war

Added legitimacy to the other punishments placed on Germany

Who was Woodrow Wilson's successor?

Warren Harding - isiolationist

What did John Maynard Keynes believe?

Treaty was motivated by vengeance

Reparations should be set at £2 billion

Strengths of Treaty

Recognised self-determination for many peoples of Europe

Recognised need to treat Germany harshly, but not too harshly

Established a mechanism to prevent future wars

Rewarded victors, and met some of their needs

Weaknesses of Treaty

German self-determination not recognised

Gave Germany strong cause for resentment - made her feel victimised

New peacekeeping ideas were untested

Victors felt their interests were not fully recognised - wartime alliance unable to last