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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the boarders of the thoracic inlet/Superior thoracic aperture

Both the right and left ribs create the sides of the inlet, T1 is the posterior border, and the superior end of sternum creates the anterior portion

Describe the boarders of the thoracic outlet/Inferior thoracic aperture

Xiphisternal joint, chondral attachment to sternum, rib 12, T12

note: This is closed b the diaphragm

What makes up the sternal region (median anterior wall)?


-Body of sternum

-Clavicular and chondral attachments to sternum

-Xyphoid process

Where is the midsternal line located?

Right at the midline; cutting the sternum in half

Where is the midclavicular line located?

in the middle of the clavicle; cutting the clavicle in half

Describe the scapular line

The line is passing through the inferior angle of the scapula

Name the:
A-Lateral Line
B-Middle line
C-Medial line

Name the:

A-Lateral Line

B-Middle line

C-Medial line

A-Posterior axillary line (vertical line dropped at lateral border of axillary fossa)

B-Midaxillary line (vertical line through middle of axillary fossa)

C-Anterior axillary line (vertical line dropped at lateral border of pectoralis major)

Where is the sternal angle located at the vertebral level (at what rib)?

-Rib 2

-T4 - T5

Where is the root of the spine of the scapular located at the vertebral level?

Vertebral level of T4, spine of T3

Where is the inferior angle of the scapula located?

-overlies rib 7, points to rib 8

-vertebral level T8, spine of T7

What kind of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?

-synovial joint

-saddle type

What kind of joint is the manubriosternal joint?

-secondary cartilaginous joint (immovable)

What kind of joint is the xiphisternal joint?

primary cartilaginous joint (immovable)

What vertebral level does the manubrium lie?

it will span between T3 and T4

What vertebral level does the body of the sternum lie?

T5 to T9

what vertebral level does the xiphoid process usually lie?

T9 but can come down to T10

What is the function of the thoracic cavity?

-Protection of thoracic and abdominal viscera

-Respiration, resists internal pressures of inspiratory movements

-Attachment and support of upper limb

-Musculature attachments of upper limbs, neck, abdomen and back

What are the true ribs?

1st through the 7th pair

what are the false ribs?

8th to the 12t pair

What are the floating ribs?

11th and 12th pair

Describe the head of the rib

vertebral end of rib; has two facets for articulation with vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae (more specifically, the demifacets)

vertebral end of rib; has two facets for articulation with vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae (more specifically, the demifacets)

Describe the angle of the rib

point of greatest curvature

point of greatest curvature

What is the costal groove?

Houses the interscostal neurovascular bundle

Pec major:

-proximal attachment

-distal attachment


-blood supply

-Prox: Clavicle, sterum, upper 6 costal cartilages

-Dis: lateral lip of intertubercular groove

-Innervation: medial and lateral pectoral nerves

-Blood supply: pectoral branches of the thoracoacrmial trunk

Pec minor:

-proximal attachment

-distal attachment


-blood supply

prox: 3-5th ribs

dis: coracoid process of scapula

innervation: medial pectoral nerve

blood supply: pectoral branches of thoracoacromial trunk

seratus anterior:

-Proximal attachment

-distal attachment


-blood supply

prox: Upper 8 or 9 ribs

Dis: medial border of scapula

Blood supply: lateral thoracic artery

innervation: long thoracic nerve

How many facets are there on each thoracic vertebrae? List them


-Inferior facet

-Superior facet

-Transverse costal facet

How do the ribs articulate with the vertebrae (how do they align with the vertebrae)?

The vertebrae of the same number and the vertebrae above it; Rib 4 articulates with T3 and T4

what makes up the costovertebral joint?

a demifacet on a rib head and a facet on a thoracic vertebrae

What makes up the costotransverse joint?

where the rib meets the transverse process of a a thoracic vertebrae

what are the muscles of inspiration?

Principal: External intercostals; interchondra part of internal intercostals; diaphragm

Accessory: Sternocleidomastoid; anterior and middle scalenes; posterior scalenes

What are the muscles of expiration?

Quiet breathing: Expiration results from recoil of lungs and rib cage

Active breathing: Internal intercostals (excluding interchondral part); abdominals (rectusd and transverse; oblique muscles (external and internal)

What are the intercostal muscles innervated by?

local intercostal nerves (ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve)

How do the fibers run in the external intercostal muscles?

anteroinferiorly from upper to lower tin

How do the external intercostal muscles move the ribs?

They elevate the ribs (aiding in inhalation)

where are the attachments of the external intercostal muscles?

they start at the costal tubercle and attach to the costochondral junction

-Extends to sternum as external (anterior) intercostal membrane

How do the internal intercostal muscles function on the ribs?

Costal portion: depresses ribs (aiding in exhalation)

How do the fibers run in the internal intercostal muscles?

posteroinferiorly from upper to lower rib

How do the internal intercostal muscle orient?

the muscle starts at the lateral border of the sternum and runs to the costal angle

-extends to vertebrae as internal (posterior) intercostal membrane

what action do the innermost intercostals have on the ribs

-elevation (aids in inhalation)

Where are the innermost intercostals located?

In the third muscular-layer of the intercostal space

Where are the subcostal muscles located?

internally on the posterior thoracic wall

How do the subcostal muscles move the ribs?

Elevate (aiding in inhalation)

Where and how are the subcostal muscles oriented?

the muscle crosses more than one intercostal space on the posterior thoracic wall

Where and how is the transverse thoracis oriented?

Lower sternum to the internal surface of the 2nd - 6th costal cartilage

-Located in the third muscular layer f the intercostal space anteriorly

What attachments does the diaphragm have?

Sternal, costochondral and lumbar

How many intercostal spaces are there?


How are the subcostal muscles, transversus thoarcis, and the thoracic diaphragm connected to the parietal pleura?

They are firmly attached to the internal surface of the thoracic wall by endothoaracic fascia

Note: this is the most internal part of the intercostal space

Where is the neurovascular bundle housed?

in the costal groove between the second and third muscular layers

What are the intercostal nerves?

-Thoracic nerves

-Thoracoabdominal nerves (subset of thoracic nerves)

Where do the thoracic nerves originate?

T1 - T11

Where do the thoracoabdominal nerves originate?

T7 - T11

where do the intercostal arteries anastomose?

within the intercostal space

What are the anterior internal thoracic arteries and what do they split into?

Internal thoracic artery (terminates 6th IC space)

Splits into musculophrenic (splits laterally) and superior epigastric (splits medially) arteries

What does the musculophrenic artery supply blood to?

7th-9th space

There are no anterior intercostal arteries in spaces ____ and ___

10 and 11

What are the posterior interthoracic arteries?

-Superior intercostal

-Thoracic aorta

supply spaces 3-11

superior (supreme) intercostal artery is a branch of what?

the costocervical trunk

What spaces does the supreme intercostal artery supply?

1st and 2nd spaces