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31 Cards in this Set

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AFFECTIVE FORECASTING

The ability to predict your own emotions - which is surprisingly poor!

SOMATIC MARKERS

The sensations related to memories are somatic markers. Anticipated events can cause bodily sensations, just like remembering a scary movie can cause your palms to get clammy.

REASON BASED CHOICE

The idea of our goal being to make decisions that we feel good about, decisions that we think are reasonable and justified.

RISK SEEKING VS RISK AVERSE

In risk seeking, a person may gamble in hope of improving their situation, whereas in risk aversion the person would refuse to gamble, holding tightly onto what they already have.

ATTRIBUTE SUBSTITUTION

A strategy of using easily available information that you hope is a plausible substitute for the information you seek. See availability heuristic.

AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC

Basing judgement on the availability of information - how easily and quickly you can come up with examples. For example, if you are trying to figure out if chemistry is an easy or hard subject and can think of four friends who failed it you might conclude that its hard.

COVARIATION

For example, X and Y covary if X tends to be on the scene when Y is, and it tends to be absent if Y is. Exercise and stamina covary, for example.

BASE-RATE INFORMATION

Information about how frequently something occurs in general

REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC

Relying on resemblance to make a judgement. For example, if your resume looks somewhat similar to an employee that is awesome, they would quite likely choose you if they are using the representativeness heuristic to make a decision.

CONFIRMATION BIAS

A tendency to be more responsive to evidence that confirms your beliefs, rather than to evidence that might challenge them.

INDUCTION

The process in which you make forecasts about new cases, based on ones you've observed so far.

DEDUCTION

Cases in which you start with claims or assertions that you count as 'truth' and ask what follows from these premises.

BELIEF PERSEVERANCE

When people continue a belief while ignoring disconfirming evidence that is undeniable.

CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS

A type of logical argument that begins with two assertions (the problems premises), each containing a statement about a category, that then reach a conclusion (which can be valid or invalid, creating invalid or valid syllogisms). For example, All X are Y. Some A are X. Therefore, some A are Y - a valid syllogism

BELIEF BIAS

If a syllogism ends with a conclusion that people generally believe anyhow, they are more likely to judge the conclusion as following logically from the premises.

CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS

Statements of the 'If X, then Y' format, where the second statement is guaranteed to be true under the condition first specified.

MEANS-END ANALYSIS

You compare your current state to your goal state and ask, "What do I have to do to make these more alike?". This leads you to break the problem down into smaller sub-problems, each with their own goals.

HILL-CLIMBING STRATEGY

At each point in your problem solving, you choose the option that takes you closest to your final goal. Think the dog and the fence, trying to reach a bone without stepping away to the gate.

FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS

The tendency to be rigid in how you think about an objects function. This can impact on problem solving.

PROBLEM SOLVING SET/EINSTELLUNG

The collection of beliefs and assumptions a person makes about a problem.

WALLAS'S FOUR STAGES OF CREATIVITY

1. Preparation - the person gathers information


2. Incubation - the problem is set aside, where it is worked on unconsciously


3. Illumination - some key insight or new idea emerges
4. Verification - the person confirms that the new idea really does solve the problem

RELIABILITY

Refers to how consistent the measure is, and is often evaluated with test-retest reliability - if we give the test, wait a while, and give it again, do we get more or less the same outcome?

VALIDITY

Refers to whether or not the test actually measures what it is meant to, which can be measured with predictive validity - for example if an intelligence test really measures intelligence then the score should be able to tell us how well the person will do in a situation that requires intelligence

Fluid intelligence

The ability to deal with new and unusual problems.

CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE

Refers to our acquired knowledge, including your verbal knowledge and repertoire of skills

PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE

The kind of intelligence needed for skilled reasoning in day-today settings

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

The ability to understand your own emotions and others', plus the ability to control your emotions when appropriate

THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Argues for eight types of intelligence, linguistic, logical-mathical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Gardner attempts to support this theory by discussing savant syndrome.

SAVANT SYNDROME

People who have a single, extraordinary talent, even though they're otherwise disabled to a profound degree. Gardner uses this syndrome to help prove his theory of multiple intelligences.

FLYNN EFFECT

Our intelligence, based on IQ tests, seems to be increasing by approximately 3 points per decade.

STEREOTYPE THREAT

The negative impact that social stereotypes can have on task performance once they are activated, for example an african american woman might perform poorly on an iq test if the stereotype that says she will perform poorly is activated.