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13 Cards in this Set

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Describe the introduction of Knowledge & Learning essay.

Will consider for & against statement => look at definitions of K & L, different types of K, epistemology argument & expertise.




Conc = statement might be true, but not a good statement at all - need much more than easy learning for knowledge of quality.

What is Paragraph 1 of Knowledge & Learning essay?

What is Knowledge?

Describe What is knowledge? - P1 of Knowledge & Learning essay.

Declarative vs. procedural - knowing THAT leads to more learning, knowing HOW doesn't.




Once you know how to ride a bike, that's it!




OED of K & L - inherent circle, one can't exist without the other.




Suggests K = theoretical & L = either theoretical or practical.




So more K = easier learning, but ONLY in theoretical fields. Thus, statement = concurrent, especially as OED = trusted/viable.




e.g. Larson & Nippold (2007) adolescent lang dev - circular relationship: reading & word learning.




Words learned, Improved understanding = more access to contextual cues - easier to read. i.e More K/understanding = easier learning.




Problem = conflation of K & understanding.

What is Paragraph 2 of Knowledge & Learning essay?

Epistemology argument (EMP-RAT)

What is the gist of Epistemology argument (EMP-RAT) - Paragraph 2 K & L essay?

Innate capacity + Knowledge = learning

Describe Epistemology argument (EMP-RAT) - P2 Knowledge & Learning essay.

Empiricism: K derived from sensory exp - refined by reason & thought. Aristotle's association laws allow refinement.




Rationalism: K derived from innate capacity to learn




e.g. Maths = universal/known w/o sensory exp: Meno's slave




Still depends on sensory exp (i.e. working in the sand!)




Combination of both? Demostrates knowledge dependent on sensory experience & innate capacity to learn.




Innate capacity isn't Knowledge - thus more than knowledge is needed for easier learning. This poses the question, what else?



What is Paragraph 3 of Knowledge & Learning essay?

De Groot (1965) - experience - swayed upon recall.

Describe De Groot (1965) - experience - swayed on recall - Paragraph 3 of K & L essay.

De Groot (1965): Chess grandmasters - experience.




Exp, K & Understanding = synonymous.Is experience K? No! Can be easily swayed upon recall (Loftus & Palmer)




Not necessarily trustworthy - therefore, exp & innate capacity needed for good learning.




Statement = true, but what use is easier learning if the learning isn't good/trustworthy.

What is Paragraph 4 of Knowledge & Learning essay?

EXPERTISE - after 10Y rule / vocab & grammar burst

Describe Expertise - after 10Y rule & vocab/grammar burst - Paragraph 4 of K & L essay.

Expertise: Simon & Chase; Ericsson et al - 10Y rule => harder to learn more about something when knowing more.



Lang dev. = most rapid <3Y, i.e. when with least amount of K!




Fenson et al: 3Y 1000W - Clarke; Anglin: 10,000W - Economist report: Adults = 25-30,000W.



What is Paragraph 5 of Knowledge & Learning essay?

Personal - Positivity & Scheduling

Describe Personal - Positivity & Scheduling - Paragraph 5 of K & L essay.

Hard to attend university - less 'being taught'. Issue = how to refine my K (I have the same amount of K as others).




Solution = learned optimism/positivity! = easier to learn.




Scheduling also makes it easier to learn.

Even though statement may be true, in lots of respects - what's more important is the fact that easier learning & more knowledge isn't necessarily good/of high quality.




More than knowledge is needed (experience, innate capacity, understanding, application, expertise, positivity, organisation).