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115 Cards in this Set

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APA General Principle A: Beneficience & Nonmaleficience

Psychologists Aim "to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm". They safeguard the welfare and rights of people they interact with professionally as well as the welfare of animals used in research. They attempt to resolve conflicts among professional obligations, guard against misuse of their influence, have awareness of how own physical and mental health may affect their capacity.

APA General Principle B: Fidelity and

Responsibility

The principle of fidelity and responsibility recognizes that "Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those whom they work". Psychs should be aware of their responsibilities to these people and should uphold professional standards. They are encouraged to clarify roles, manage conflicts that may cause harm, consult and cooperate with other professionals. Concerned with ethical principles of others, contribute some of their services for little or no compensation.

APA General Principle C: Integrity

In all professional activities, psychologists should promote "accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness" and should avoid all fraudulent activities. Commitments and promises should be made carefully and upheld. Deception should be used only with great care.

APA General Principle D: Justice

This principle recognizes that all persons should benefit from the contributions of psychology and should be treated with equal quality in all psychological activities. It enjoins psychologists to ensure that their own biases and limitations of competence do not result in unjust practices.

APA General Principle E: Respect for People's Rights and Dignity

Respect for rights and dignity includes respect for the rights of privacy, confidentiality, and self determination. Psychologists should recognize and respect differences based on age, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status. Psychologists should also consider these factors when providing services. Furthermore, psychologists should try to eliminate the effect of biases based on these factors in their own and other's work.

1.01 misuse of psychologists' work

Psychologists should take steps to correct the misuse or misrepresentation of their work.

1.02 conflicts between ethics and law

When conflicts arise between ethics and law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists should "clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the ethics code and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict" in a manner consistent with the ethics code, the code explicitly states that psychologists may never use this standard "to justify or defend violating human rights".

1.03 conflicts between ethics and organizational demands

When conflicts occur between the ethics code and demands of an I organization, psychologists should "clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the ethics code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict" in a manner consistent with the ethics code. The code explicitly states that psychologists may never use this standar to justify or defend violating human rights.

1.04 informal resolution of ethical violations

If psychologists know of an ethical violation by another psychologist, they should speak directly to the colleague, assuming an "informal resolution" seems appropriate and confidentiality will not be violated.

1.05 reporting ethical violations

If an informal resolution is unsuccessful or informal resolution is inappropriate (substantial harm occurred) refer to ethics committees or licensing boards. Such action should not be taken if it violates confidentiality or if retained to review the work of another psychologist whose conduct was in question.

Addressing ethical misconduct (consider 3 things)

1) how you came to learn about the offense


2) the type and severity of the offense


3) if an informal resolution is attempted, the collegue's responses to the attempted resolution.

1.06 cooperating with ethics committees

Failure to cooperate with an ethics investigation, whether by APA or a state psychological association, constitutes and ethical violation ( APA cannot revoke a license but can inform the state board of complaints and actions against a psychologist)

1.07 improper complaints

Psychologists should not file, or encourage the filing of, ethics complaints that deliberately disregard the facts of a situation.

1.08 unfair discrimination against complainants and respondents

Psychologists should not discriminate against person because he/she is subject of an ethics complaint-- allowed to take action based on outcome of proceedings.

2.01 Boundaries of competence

Psychologists should practice within boundaries of competence. To understand effect of certain factors (age, gender,identity, race, etc.) must make sure they have or obtain appropriate training, supervision, or consultation-- otherwise, make appropriate referral, except in emergency situation.

Consultation, supervision, training

Consultation when somewhat familiar with treating a disorder but are not an expert or have concerns about objectivity.


Supervision when applying newly learned techniques, beginning to work with specific disorder, have training but not had clinical experience.


Training when unfamiliar with certain area of knowledge- ideally followed by supervision in area of training.

Referring out (appropriate situations)

1) psychologists personal beliefs and issues interfere with therapy


2)client feels uncomfortable with therapist


3) therapist lacks competence in treating the presenting problem.


Psychologists may provide services in an emergency when not fully competent if no other mental health services available.

Competence in Emerging Areas (Forensics)

In emerging areas with no clear guidelines, psychologists should "take reasonable steps to ensure competence".


For forensic activities, psychologists should ensure they are "reasonably familiar with the judicial or administrative rules governing their roles".

2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies

Psychologists may provide services for which they a not fully competent in clinical emergencies to ensure individuals receive necessary treatment. Services should be terminated as soon as emergency has passed or more appropriate services have been secured.

2.03 Maintaining Competence

Make an ongoing effort to maintain competence

2.04 Basis for Scientific and Professional Judgements

Psychologists should always base their work on the scientific and professional knowledge that has been established in the field.

2.05 Delegation of Work to Others

Psychologists should ensure that those to whom they delegate work (supervises, interpreters) perform only those duties for which they have competence and that there is no harmful multiple relationship with those being served. Also, ensure the services are performed competently.

2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts

Psychologists should not initiate any activity whey they know or should know their personal problems will impair their competence. They are required to address their personal problems appropriately and seek consultation about whether to suspend, limit, or terminate practice.

3.01 Unfair Discrimination

Psychologists should not engage in unfair discrimination based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or any other basis prohibited by law.

3.02 Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is prohibited, defined as behavior that meets one of two criteria:


1) behavior that "is unwelcome, is offensive, or creates a hostile workplace or educational environment and the psychologist knows or is told this.


2) Behavior that is so severe that any reasonable person would recognize it as abusive.

3.03 Other Harassment

Psychologists are prohibited from engaging in any other harassment based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status

3.04 Avoiding Harm

Psychologists are enjoined to avoid harming clients and others whenever possible, and to minimize harm when it's unavoidable.

3.05 Multiple Relationships

Multiple relationship exists when a therapist enters into a non-professional relationship with a current client, or with someone close to the client (e.g. client's boyfriend, sister, etc.) or promises to enter into a relationship in the future with a client or person close to the client. May not enter into a multiple relationship when it might impair objectivity, competence, effectiveness or harm or exploit the client (it's a judgment call)

Multiple Relationship due to unforeseen factors

If due to unforeseen factors a multiple relationship occurs that is harmful, the psychologist should "attempt to resolve it with due regard for the best interests of the affected person and maximal compliance with the Ethics Code" (terminate non-professional contact or terminate therapy).

Multiple Relationships & Custody Evaluations

A psychologist conducting a custody evaluation with a current or prior client or conducting therapy with a current or prior custody examinee--both considered mult relationship--not explicitly prohibited but should be avoided. Does not preclude psychologist from testifying as a fact witness concerning child's treatment but then should decline role of expert witness giving professional opinion about custody & visitation.

Multiple Relationships & Parole Evaluations

Most correctional psychologists are both a therapist and evaluator for parole and release. Ethical guidelines encourage sensitivity to the ethical pitfalls inherent in this dual relationship but it is permitted.

3.06 Conflict of Interest

Psychologists should not enter into a professional relationship with someone with whom they already have other relationships or involvement (e.g. financial or personal) if the result would be impairment of objectivity, competence, or effectiveness or other party would suffer harm or exploitation.

3.07 Third Party Requests for Services

When providing services for a third party (e.g. insurance co., EAP, courts), role, client, uses of services (e.g. assessment used to judge competence in court), and limits of confidentiality should be clarified at outset of treatment.

EAP & Insurance Requests for Services

If client care covered by Insurance co., psychologist should clarify extent of coverage & information needed then inform client. When client referred through company EAP, employer has right to know whether or not the employee attended the sessions, but does not have the right to confidential information about session content.

3.08 Exploitative Relationships

Psychologists shouldn't exploit people over whom they are in a position of power, such as clients, students, supervisees, research participants, employees.

3.09 Cooperation with Other Professionals

Psychologists should cooperate with other professionals, as appropriate, in order to serve the best interests of their clients.

3.10 Informed Consent

When engaging in research, assessment, therapy, counseling, or consultation (in-person & electronic) must secure informed consent. Language used must be reasonably understandable to clients. Exception exists when laws, or governmental regulations mandate conducting these activities without consent (court-ordered evaluation no consent obtained but client informed of purpose of eval and limits of confidentiality.

Informed Consent with Minors (persons incapable of giving consent)

When clients incapable of giving consent, permission must be obtained from a legally authorized person (e.g. legal guardian). Clients must be provided with explanation, assent sought, and consider client's wishes and best interests. Must protect rights and welfare of clients even when consent from legally authorized person not mandated or permitted by law.

Informed Consent with Court Order/Mandate

People court ordered or mandated to obtain psychological services should be informed of the nature of services provided, of the fact that services are mandated, and any limits to confidentiality.

Informed Consent Documentation

Psychologists should appropriately document that informed consent or assent has been secured, whether in written or oral format. The Ethics Code does not specify that informed consent must be in writing, only that it be documented, as in a progress note. It is standard practice to secure informed consent in writing.

3.11 Psychological Services Delivered To or Through Organizations

When working for an organization, psychologists should inform clients and others affected of:


the nature of psychological services, the intended recipients, which persons are clients, the relationship between the psychologist and each person, the relationship between the psychologist and the organization, the probable uses of services and information, who will have access to information, and limits of confidentiality. Psychologists should provide feedback after treatment and eval. If feedback is precluded, should inform person ahead of time (when appointed by court to evaluate a defendent, must explain will be no confidentiality and no feedback).

3.12 Interruption of Psychological Services

Psychologists must make plans for continuation of care in the event of relocation, illness, death, or in even of client's relocation or financial limitations. These plans are often termed, "a professional will". "Unless otherwise covered by contract" is also stipulated per the Ethics Code to cover managed care restrictions of sessions or termination requirements to clarify that psychologists not abandoning clients.

4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality

Psychologists have a primary obligation to protect the confidential information they obtain (Ethics Code).

4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality

Psychologists must discuss the limits of confidentiality with any person or organization with whom they work. Must also discuss the possible uses of any information obtained (e.g. court assessment, organizational intervention). Confidentiality discussed at outset of treatment and whenever relevant changes in circumstances (insurance to fee-for-service). If electronic transmission used, must inform clients of possible risks to privacy and additional limits to confidentiality.

4.03 Recording

Permission for taping or videotaping must be secured from clients.

4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy

Psychologists should discuss confidential information obtained from clients only for scientific or professional purposes, and should include only the confidential information that is necessary when preparing oral or written reports.

4.05 Disclosures

Confidential information may be disclosed when the client gives consent. Confidential information may be disclosed without consent when the disclosure is permitted by law (e.g. to protect the client, psychologist, or other from harm, to obtain professional consultation, to provide necessary professional services) or when the disclosure is mandated by law (e.g. Tarasoff, child/elder abuse reporting). Psychologists may disclose, without consent, the smallest amount of information necessary to obtain payment for services.

4.06 Consultations

During consultations, psychologists should not reveal detailed information that could lead to identification of a client unless they have obtained prior consent or the disclosure cannot be avoided. Only share information that is absolutely necessary for consultation.


4.07 use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposes

When Psychologists lecture or write, they must not include confidential information unless the person has consented in writing or there is legal authorization to do so. Otherwise, confidential information should be disguised.

Subpoenas (4.07)

Subpoenas usually issued by attorneys, and may be a subpoena alone (requiring psychologist to appear for questioning) or a subpoena duces tecum (requiring Psych to appear with client records). Subpoenas cannot be ignored. When received, contact client, inform him/her of subpoena, and seek permission to release information. If no permission granted, psych may contact attorney requesting subpoena be quashed. Otherwise, psych must appear at designated location and bring requested records; however, psych should then asser patient-therapist privilege, and neither testify nor turn over records, unless ordered to do so by the court.

Court Orders (4.07)

In contrast to subpoenas, court orders are signed by a judge and carry the weight of law. A psychologist may always request that a judge modify the court order (e.g. psych may point out that portions of the record are not relevant to the legal case and request only part be revealed). The psychologist must comply with any court order or be held in contempt of court. Throughout, the psych should maintain frequent contact with the client and client's attorney.

Court-Appointed Evaluation (4.07)

Psychologist is retained by court to evaluate a defendant (e.g. for competency to stand trial, evaluation of insanity, etc.). The results of the evaluation are to be shared with the courts and the client has no confidentiality rights. There is no requirement that psychologist get defendant's consent to participate. However, psychologist must explain the nature of the evaluation and the limits of confidentiality prior to beginning the evaluation. All information gathered in a court-appointed evaluation may be shared with the court; no signed release of information is needed.

Court-Ordered Therapy (4.07)

The court has ordered a defendant to seek therapy as a condition of his/her sentence and the defendant usually seeks a therapist. At the end or periodically throughout treatment, the court requests information from the therapist. The psych must make sure to clarify the nature of the treatment ordered by the court, as well as the information the court needs. The psych must discuss this information with the client and obtain informed consent. Also, the psych must generally obtain a signed release of info from the client to be able to communicate with the court.

Differences Between Court-Appointed Evaluation and Court-Ordered Therapy (4.07)

Ask "who is the client"? In court-appointed evaluations, the court hires the psychologist and the client is the court. The court has the right to the information and there is no confidentiality or need for a release of information. In court-ordered therapy, the client hires the psychologist. The client is the client and has confidentiality rights, there is need for a release of information.

Confidentiality Definition

The client's right to have communications kept within the bounds of the professional client-therapist relationship. Confidential relationships are generally not be revealed to third parties (anyone outside of the professional relationship).

Privilege Definition

The client's right to keep confidential communications from being disclosed in a legal proceeding. Client holds privilege and therapist may assert privilege on behalf of client. In court appointed evaluations, there is no privilege.

5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements

Public statements include any written or oral statement in any form other than an entirely private conversation or letter. Psychs should never make intentionally deceptive statements regarding training and experience, degrees, credentials, affiliations, services, publications, etc. When psychs are presenting credentials to provide health care services, only present those relevant to psych licensure.

5.02 Statements by Others (advertising)

Psychologists retain responsibility for public statements about themselves, even when they hire someone else to promote them or their practice. Psychologists must try to prevent others (e.g. employers) from making deceptive statements and correct them when possible. It is prohibited to pay a media employee for publicity or reporting (paying reporter to write article about psych's practice). Paid ads must be identified as such.

5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs

Psychologists must exercise what control they have to ensure that published materials (e.g. brochures) about non-degree programs (e.g. workshops) contain accurate information regarding intended audience, objectives, presenters, fees.

5.04 Media Presentations

When Psychs provide public advice (e.g. lectures, radio, tv, web) statements must be based on appropriate psych literature and practice, must be consistent with the Ethics Code and must make clear there is no therapeutic relationship established. Specifically, make it clear they are not providing treatment, but are only offering advice or feedback.

5.05 Testimonials

The Ethics Code allows for solicitation and use of testimonials under certain narrowly circumscribed situations. They may never be solicited from current clients, or from any persons who are vulnerable to undue influence.

5.06 In-Person Solicitation

Solicitation of new business is prohibited when people are vulnerable to undue influence. This does not apply to providing disaster or community outreach services. Unethical to approach someone after a car accident to encourage them to come to therapy but ethical to work with community disaster response team, assessing and giving appropriate referrals.

6.01 Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work And Maintenance of Records (goals)

To the extent they have control, psychologists should create and maintain records of their professional work with the following goals in mind: 1) to facilitate future provision of services; 2) to allow for replication of research results;


3) to meet institutional requirements; 4) to ensure accuracy in billing; and 5) to comply with the law

6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work

To the extent they have control, psychologists create, maintain, and destroy records in a manner that protects confidentiality. When client info entered into DB, appropriate measures should be taken to protect confidentiality, including coding of personal identifiers. Psychologists should make plans to protect confidentiality of records and data in case of their death or incapacity.

6.03 Withholding Records for Nonpayment

Psychologists may not withhold records that are necessary for emergency treatment because a client owes them money. This ethical standard conflicts with current federal law. According to HIPAA, psychologist may not under any circumstances withhold records for nonpayment. It is technically ethical but illegal to withhold records for nonpayment in a non-emergency situation. --Do not withhold records for nonpayment!!

6.04 Fees and Financial Arrangements

Fees and billing arrangements must be agreed upon "as early as is feasible in a professional or scientific relationship". Fee practices must be consistent with law, may not misrepresent fees. Must inform clients before using a collection agency, and provide opportunity to make prompt payment. Do not have to inform clients at outset that may use a collection agency but must give clients warning beforehand so have opportunity to pay before going to collections. Only most limited info disclosed (name & money owed).

6.05 Barter with Clients/Patients

Bartering is "the acceptance of goods, services, or other nonmonetary remuneration from clients/patients in return for psychological services". Bartering is permissable as long as it is not clinically contraindicated and not exploitative. Bartering tends to be especially common in rural communities.

6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sources

Psychologists must provide accurate information to payors (e.g. insurance companies) and to sources of research funding. Diagnoses, fees, services provided, and similar information must all be accurately stated. Many insurance co's provide coverage for certain diagnoses but not others, psychs may not submit false or exaggerated (or understated) diagnoses/problems to ensure continuation of coverage.

6.07 Referrals and Fees

Any payments or fee-splitting between psychologists and other professionals must be based on services provided (clinical, consultative, administrative). Psychologists may never pay another professional for a referral.

7.01 Design of Education and Training Programs

Psychologists responsible for educational and training programs must ensure that the programs are designed to provide appropriate education and experience and to meet the requirements of licensure or other goals stated by the program.

7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs

Psychologists must ensure that descriptions of education and training programs are accurate in terms of their content, goals, stipends, as well as any requirements for counseling.

7.03 Accuracy in Teaching

Course outlines and syllabi should be accurate an not misleading. Instructors may nevertheless change or adapt course outlines when necessary, as long as students are still given the opportunity to fulfill course requirements. When teaching or training, psychologists should present info accurately.

7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information

Instructors may not require students to disclose personal information in a course (e.g. history of abuse, sexual history, history of treatment) unless the educational program has made this requirement clear in its admission and program materials. Such information may also be required if it is necessary to help students who are having personal problems that interfere in their clinical work, or that pose a risk of harm. This provision intended to provide safeguards for the privacy of graduate students.

7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy

If an educational program requires participation in individual or group therapy, students must have the option of obtaining treatment outside the program. Instructors who are evaluating a student's work, may not provide therapy to that student. The program may require it approve the credentials of outside therapists. Intended to protect graduate students and prevent harmful multiple relationships.

7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance

Psychologists must provide feedback to students and supervisees, and inform them of the process for that feedback at the outset of the relationship. Evaluations should be made on "the basis of...actual performance on relevant and established program requirements".

7.07 Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees

Psychologists should not engage in sexual relationships with current students or supervisees or those over whom they have or will have evaluative authority. A training director may not have a sexual relationship with an intern, even if he doesn't directly supervise her, because he will be involved with her evaluation. Also should not date current or future students or supervisees. Ethics Code does not prohibit sexual relationships with former students or supervisees.

8.01 Institutional Approval

When required, psychologists should provide accurate information and obtain appropriate approval from host institutions or organizations before conducting research.

8.02 Informed Consent to Research

Informed consent should include: 1) the purpose of the research, duration, procedures; 2) Subjects' right to decline or withdraw participation; 3) the consequences of declining or withdrawing; 4) the factors that might significantly affect the decision to participate (e.g. risks, discomfort, adverse effects, confidentiality limits); 5) prospective research benefits; 6) limits of confidentiality; 7) incentives for participation; 8) contact person for questions or concerns. Questions should be answered.

8.02 Informed Consent to Research (Involving experimental treatments)

Should include: 1) experimental nature of treatment; 2) availability or non-availability of treatment for control group; 3) how subjects are assigned to groups; 4) available treatment alternatives if subject declines or withdraws; 5) compensation or costs of participating, & whether other third party reimbursement will be sought.

8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research

Informed consent is necessary before the use of filming or recording in research. One exception to the requirement is naturalistic observations in which personal identification and harm are avoided. Another is the use of recording in a research design that involves deception. I such cases, consent for recording must be obtained during the debriefing.

8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants

When research subjects are clients, students, or other subordinates, psychologists must take care to protect them from adverse consequences due to declining or withdrawing. When participation is part of a course requirement or an option for extra credit, other alternatives must be made available for students to obtain credit.

8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research

Psychologists may dispense with informed consent when permitted by law or institutional regulations. In addition, they may dispense with IC if reserach is unlikely to create distress or harm in one of the following situations: 1) normal educational practices; 2) anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations, archival research; 3) study of a job or organization's effectiveness.

8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation

When professional services are offered to induce people to participate in a study, psychologists have to clarify the nature of the services offered, including possible risks and limitations. Excessive financial or other inducements are prohibited as they may act as coercion.

8.07 Deception in Research

Deception in research is to be avoided unless: 1) it is justified by the study's "significant prospective scientific, educational, or applied value"; and 2) alternative procedures, without deception, are not available. May never deceive prospective subjects about research that may cause physical pain or emotional distress. Subjects must be debriefed regarding the deception as early as possible, usually at the end of participation, no later than the end of data collection.

8.08 Debriefing

Participants are entitled to a prompt opportunity to obtain information about the research, including its results and conclusions. When participants have suffered harm, psychologists must take reasonable steps to reduce this harm.

8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research

Psychologists must treat animals humanely, obey all relevant laws and regulations with regard to acquiring, care, and disposing of animals. They are obliged to supervise and accept responsibility for the handling of animals, and provide training for and ensure the competence of those who handle the animals. Must make efforts to minimize the discomfort and pain of animals. Animals are only to be subjected to pain or stress when an alternative procedure is unavailable and the study is justified in terms of its "prospective scientific, educational, or applied value". Appropriate anesthesia should be used when surgical procedures are performed. When an animal's life is to be terminated, it should be done quickly and with an attempt to minimize pain.

8.10 Reporting Research Results

When reporting results, psychologists should never fabricate data. They must take reasonable steps to correct any errors that may occur in their published data.

8.11 Plagiarism

Plagiarism is strictly prohibited.

8.12 Publication Credit

Publication credit should accurately reflect contributions to the research. A position like "Department Chair" does not qualify a person for publication credit unless the individual made substantial contributions. Minor contributions should be acknowledged in a footnote or an introductory statement. The Ethics Code specifies that students should usually receive first authorship when their dissertations are published as articles. The standard doesn't apply to master's theses. Often, a master's thesis is completed as a part of a larger ongoing research project, and the student's contribution doesn't actually warrant first authorship. Issues of publication should be discussed with students as early as possible and throughout the publication process.

8.13 Duplicate Publication of Data

Previously published data should not be published in a manner that implies they are original data.

8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification

Psychologists should make available their own data to others who wish to replicate their results, assuming confidentiality and legal concerns are addressed. They may also require that the requesting party pay for any costs that are incurred in this process. Psychologists who request data for purposes of verification may not use the data for any other purpose, unless they obtain explicit written permission for these other uses.

8.15 Reviewers

When reviewing articles for publication, or presentation, psychologists should respect confidentiality and proprietary rights.

9.01 Bases for Assessments

Assessments, recommendations, and reports, including forensic testimony, should be based on techniques that are appropriate and sufficient. Forensic evaluations should normally include an examination of the person involved. If that is not possible, psychologists must explicitly clarify what the effect will be on the validity of their reports and limit their conclusions accordingly. When providing services that don't require a direct examination of the person--record review or consultation--psychologists should explain this fact, as well as explaining the sources of information they are using.

9.02 Use of Assessments

Assessment tools are to be used appropriately in light of relevant research. Assessment instruments should generally be used on populations for which they have demonstrated validity and reliability. Otherwise, the strengths and limitations of the results and interpretations should be described. Assessment methods should be appropriate to the person's language preference and competence, unless the use of another language is relevant to the assessment's purpose.

9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments

Psychologists usually must secure informed consent prior to completing an assessment. There are three exceptions to this requirement: 1) when the testing is mandated by law or government regulations; 2) when the assessment is part of a routine educational or organizational activity and informed consent is implied (e.g. as part of applying for a job); 3) when the testing is designed to assess decisional capacity.

9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments

Informed consent to assessment generally includes information about the nature and purpose of the assessment, fees, third party involvement, limits of confidentiality, as well as including an opportunity to have any questions answered. When persons have "questionable capacity to consent" or testing is mandated by law, psychologists use reasonably understandable language to explain the nature and purpose of the assessment. When interpreter used, that info must be included as part of consent. Must ensure confidentiality and test security are maintained. Discuss potential limitations of data due to use of interpreter.

9.04 Release of Test Data

Ethics Code defines test data as "raw and scaled scores, client/patient responses to test questions or stimuli, and psychologists' notes and recordings concerning client/patient statements and behavior during an examination". Psychologists should release test data to the client or whomever designated on the release of info form. Psychs may refuse to release data if they believe doing so would cause "substantial harm, or the misuse or misinterpretation of test data". However, as the Ethics Code notes, laws may nevertheless require that data be released. If a client has not signed a release of information, psychologists may only release data if mandated by law or a court order.

9.05 Test Construction

Psychologists who develop assessment instruments must ensure appropriate design, standardization, validation, and reduction of bias.

9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results

Psychologists interpret assessment results in light of all relevant factors, including issues of culture and language. They should also indicate any limitations of their interpretations.

9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons

Psychologists should not promote the use of assessment of unqualified persons, unless it is in the context of an appropriate training person.

9.08 Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results

Psychologists should not base treatment or other decisions on obsolete test data or on obsolete measures.

9.09 Test Scoring and Interpretation Services

Psychologists retain ultimate responsibility for the use and interpretation of assessment instruments, regardless of whether they score and interpret the tests themselves or whether they use interpretation services.

9.10 Explaining Assessment Results

Psychologists should explain assessment results to clients. When the nature of the assessment situation precludes the sharing of results (e.g. security screenings, forensic examinations), the clients should be informed in advance that they will not receive the results.

9.11 Maintaining Test Security

Psychologists must make efforts to maintain test security.

10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy

Psychologists should "as early as feasible in the therapeutic relationship," discuss with clients the nature and anticipated course of treatment, fees, involvement of third parties, and limits of confidentiality. They should also provide an opportunity for clients to have their questions answered.

10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy (Intervention Techniques, Trainees)

When treatment involves intervention techniques that have not yet been generally recognized or established, psychologists should inform their clients of this fact, as well as of any potential risks and possible alternative treatments. When trainees treat clients, clients should be informed that the therapist is in training, that the case is being supervised, and they should be given the name of the supervisor who has legal responsibility for the case.

10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or Families

When psychologists provide services to more than one person at a time (e.g. marital or family therapy), psychs should clarify which of the individuals are clients and what relationship the psychologist will have with each person. If psychologists are asked to perform conflicting roles (e.g. marital therapist and witness for one party in a divorce), psychologists must "take reasonable steps to clarify and modify, or withdraw from, roles appropriately".

10.03 Group Therapy

At the beginning of group therapy situations, psychologists should clarify the roles of the psychologists and participants, as well as the limits of confidentiality.

10.04 Providing Therapy to Those Served By Others

When clients are in treatment with other mental health providers, psychologists should carefully consider the treatment issues and the potential welfare of clients, discuss the issues with clients to minimize any confusion, consult with the other providers when appropriate, and proceed with caution and sensitivity. It would be appropriate for a client to seek psychotherapy from a psychologists and meds from a psychiatrist but if also being treated by another psychologist for the same issues, the psychologist would need to discuss this matter with the client

10.05 Sexual Intimacies With Current Therapy Clients/Patients

Psychologists may never engage in sex with current clients.

10.06 Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients

Psychologists may not have sexual relations with persons who are near to clients, including close relatives and significant others. In addition, psychologists may not terminate therapy with a client in order to engage in such a relationship.

10.07 Therapy with Former Sexual Partners

Psychologists may never treat previous sexual partners.

10.08 Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients

Psychologists may never have sex with a former client unless at least two years have passed since treatment ended. After two years, psychologists still shouldn't enter into sexual relationships with former clients unless "the most unusual circumstances" exist. The burden is on the psychologists to prove there has been no exploitation, especially in light of 7 factors: time passed since termination; the nature, intensity, and duration of treatment; circumstances of termination; personal history of the client; the client's current mental status; likelihood of adverse impact; and sexual statements made during treatment.

10.09 Interruption of Therapy

When psychologists enter into employment or contractual arrangements (e.g. managed care contracts), they take reasonable steps to ensure that responsibility for clients' care will be resolved appropriately when these contracts end. The welfare of the client should be the overriding consideration.

10.10 Terminating Therapy

Psychologists should terminate therapy when it is reasonably clear that the client no longer needs, is not benefitting from, or is being harmed by treatment. It is ethically permissible to terminate therapy if the client, or someone in a relationship with the client, is threatening or endangering the psychologist. Termination should usually be preceded by pretermination counseling, which may include suggesting alternative treatment providers when appropriate. Exceptions to the requirement for pretermination counseling include when actions of clients make it impossible (e.g. sudden refusal to attend therapy sessions) or when it is prohibited by third-party payors (e.g. managed care companies).