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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

retic count in B12 supplementation for deficiency

U shaped curve - increase then decrease at beginning

cause of periportal hepatic fibrosis

chronic viral hepatitis

cause of centrilobular necrosis (and where is it)

around the hepatic vein

ischemia, drugs, fulminant hepatitis

vimentin - marker for?

intermediate filament, mesenchymal origin

marker for sarcoma

LCA aka

marker for?


marker for lymphoma

osmium tetroxide stain - what's black?

fat = black

wright's stain

platelet color


AS - murmur, common cause of stenosis

parvus et tardus, crescendo decresendo, r sternal boder

senile calcification

infective endocarditis causes what valve pathology?


not stenosis

ankylosing spondylitits cardiac path

aortic insufficiency

where crystals develop in tumor lysis syndrome and why?

DCT or MD due to low pH

uric acid crystals

IVC and AA relationship

AA - Left

IVC - Right

both retroperitoneal

air in GB and biliary tree suggest what pathology

fistula -> gallsteon ileus

stone at ileocecal valve > bowel obstruction > abd. pain and distention, tinkling bowel sounds

w/ regular gallstone usually don't get air

in a person w/ hx/o stones

choledocolithiasis s/sx

colic, juandice, cholangitis - fever, RUQ pain, murphy sign

no free air in biliary tree

murphy sign

inspiratory pause during inhalation w/ palpation RUQ

cholera and yersinia vaccine


BCG vaccine


ADPKD s/sx

HTN, gross hematuria - from cyst rupture, liver cysts, ICH/aneurysm

lung abscess cause

most commonly aspiration or oropharyngeal contens

foul smelling sputum, fever, clubbing, etc.

radical hysterectomy risks damaging

ureter > hydronephrosis - pain radiates to groin, palpable mass

ureter relative to uterine arteries

water under the bridge

ureter posterior to uterine arteries

prostate/bladder surgery can cause what bladder path?

vesicoureteral reflux > risk for pyelo

interstitial nephritis

s/sx (3)


fever, rash, arthralgia

drug-induced often

G6P dehydrogenase catalyzes

G6P > 6P glucuronate

RLS of HMP shunt - oxidative

RLS of HMP shunt

g6P dehydrogenase

phosphoglucoisomerase catalyzes



G6 phosphatase catalyzes

G6P > glucose

phosphoglucomutase catalyzes



hexokinase/glucokinase catalyze

Glucose > G6P

amphotericin sfx

renal tox: decreased GFR due to vasoconstriction


electrolyte abnormalities

hypoK, hypoMg due to increased distal tub perm

neonatal hepatitis may be described as

raise index of suspicion for?

proloned jaundice


organosphophate poisoining mechanism, distribution


penetrates BBB

irrev inhibition of AChE

tx pralidoxime - regenerates AChE

atropine - inhibits mACh

neurofibromin gene, fxn

NF1 inhibits RAS

e-cadherin loss associated w/


long term anticoagulation for VTE


legionella labs


hyponatremia, few orgs, lots of nphils

tx: fluoroquinolones, macros

daptomycin sfx, MOA

depolarize cell membrane - pores

sfx: myopathy, increased CPK

linezolid SFX

thrombocytopenia, optic neuritis, 5-HT syndrome

CDC steps for avoiding CVC infections

what type of orgs?

hand hygeine, barrier, chlorhexice to disinfect, avoid femoral, remove asap

usually gram +

unilateral size discrepancy between kidney - cause

RAS - abd/flank bruits

due to athero or more rarely - fibromuscular dysplasia (women, 20-30, string of beads)

avoid ACE!

finding in fibromuscular dysplasia - imaging

string of beads

distending pressure equation


T = surface tension

lg and small sphere conncted - air flow> what will happen w/o surfactant

small will collapse

surfactant counters this

varicose veins


other s/sx

dysfunctional valve > retrograde flow

skin ulcerations, superficial thrombi, infections

phlegmasia alba dolens

milk leg - pregnancy - iliofem vein thrombosis

MMPS and fibroblasts - what stage of wound healing


wound dehiscence

rupture of previously closed

insufficient vascularization

most common cause of delayed wound healing


post-SAH complication, timing, prevention

vasospasm 4-10 days later, clean CT

dx w/ transcranial color doppler

tx: nimodipine - ca blockre

vitamin deficiency more common in alcoholics folate or b12?


mallory weiss tears cause

increased intrabd pressure due to vomiting

may also have hiatal hernia

lung transplant - common infection

pulmonary edema due to what path?

CMV - owl's eyes

edema due to ischemia-reperfusion

CNS necrosis type, mechanism

lysosomal digestion> liequefactive

which type of necrosis preserves tissue architecture

coag necrosish

hemorrhagic infarcts - what situation?

dual blood supply - as w/ lung, CNS reperfusion

MCD following what (3)


respiratory infection, immunization, atopy

tx: corticosteroids

CHF renal signaling

increased sympathetic activity

BNP - release, activity

released in response to ventricular stretch

vasodil, diuresis, decreased BP

same as ANP

16sRNA in prokaryotes

on 30s subunit, complementary to shine dalgarno of mRNA > initiate translation

translation subunits in proks

30s and 50s subunits

23s subunit in proks

part of 50s

peptide bond formation

driver of translocation in prok translation

elongation factor G and GTP

tx of acute and open angle glauc that affects kidneys and MOA

CA inhibitor, reduces bicarb reabs in kidneys

decreased aqueous humor formation

SLE hypersensitivity types

type II

nephritis - type III

renal pathology most common in SLE

proliferative glomerulonephritis

systemic sclerosis aka, antibodies


anti-dna topoisomerase (scl-70a)

limited sclerosis aka

crest - anti-centromere, raynauds, esophageal dysmotility, scleroderma, telangiectasia

sjogren's ABs

anti-ro (ssa)

anti-LA (ssb)

terbutaline function, MOA

beta agonist

inhibit uterine contractions to delay labor