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69 Cards in this Set

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retic count in B12 supplementation for deficiency

U shaped curve - increase then decrease at beginning

cause of periportal hepatic fibrosis

chronic viral hepatitis

cause of centrilobular necrosis (and where is it)

around the hepatic vein


ischemia, drugs, fulminant hepatitis

vimentin - marker for?

intermediate filament, mesenchymal origin


marker for sarcoma

LCA aka


marker for?

CD45


marker for lymphoma

osmium tetroxide stain - what's black?

fat = black

wright's stain


platelet color

purple

AS - murmur, common cause of stenosis

parvus et tardus, crescendo decresendo, r sternal boder


senile calcification



infective endocarditis causes what valve pathology?

insufficiency


not stenosis

ankylosing spondylitits cardiac path

aortic insufficiency

where crystals develop in tumor lysis syndrome and why?

DCT or MD due to low pH


uric acid crystals

IVC and AA relationship

AA - Left


IVC - Right


both retroperitoneal

air in GB and biliary tree suggest what pathology

fistula -> gallsteon ileus


stone at ileocecal valve > bowel obstruction > abd. pain and distention, tinkling bowel sounds


w/ regular gallstone usually don't get air


in a person w/ hx/o stones

choledocolithiasis s/sx

colic, juandice, cholangitis - fever, RUQ pain, murphy sign


no free air in biliary tree

murphy sign

inspiratory pause during inhalation w/ palpation RUQ

cholera and yersinia vaccine

killed

BCG vaccine

live

ADPKD s/sx

HTN, gross hematuria - from cyst rupture, liver cysts, ICH/aneurysm

lung abscess cause

most commonly aspiration or oropharyngeal contens


foul smelling sputum, fever, clubbing, etc.

radical hysterectomy risks damaging

ureter > hydronephrosis - pain radiates to groin, palpable mass

ureter relative to uterine arteries

water under the bridge


ureter posterior to uterine arteries

prostate/bladder surgery can cause what bladder path?

vesicoureteral reflux > risk for pyelo

interstitial nephritis


s/sx (3)


cause

fever, rash, arthralgia


drug-induced often

G6P dehydrogenase catalyzes

G6P > 6P glucuronate


RLS of HMP shunt - oxidative

RLS of HMP shunt

g6P dehydrogenase

phosphoglucoisomerase catalyzes

G6P>F6P


F6P>G6P

G6 phosphatase catalyzes

G6P > glucose

phosphoglucomutase catalyzes

G6P>G1P


G1P>G6P

hexokinase/glucokinase catalyze

Glucose > G6P

amphotericin sfx

renal tox: decreased GFR due to vasoconstriction


ATN


electrolyte abnormalities


hypoK, hypoMg due to increased distal tub perm

neonatal hepatitis may be described as


raise index of suspicion for?

proloned jaundice


A1AT

organosphophate poisoining mechanism, distribution


tx

penetrates BBB


irrev inhibition of AChE


tx pralidoxime - regenerates AChE


atropine - inhibits mACh



neurofibromin gene, fxn

NF1 inhibits RAS

e-cadherin loss associated w/

mets

long term anticoagulation for VTE

warfarin

legionella labs


tx

hyponatremia, few orgs, lots of nphils


tx: fluoroquinolones, macros

daptomycin sfx, MOA

depolarize cell membrane - pores


sfx: myopathy, increased CPK

linezolid SFX

thrombocytopenia, optic neuritis, 5-HT syndrome

CDC steps for avoiding CVC infections


what type of orgs?

hand hygeine, barrier, chlorhexice to disinfect, avoid femoral, remove asap


usually gram +

unilateral size discrepancy between kidney - cause

RAS - abd/flank bruits


due to athero or more rarely - fibromuscular dysplasia (women, 20-30, string of beads)


avoid ACE!

finding in fibromuscular dysplasia - imaging

string of beads

distending pressure equation

2T/R


T = surface tension

lg and small sphere conncted - air flow> what will happen w/o surfactant

small will collapse


surfactant counters this

varicose veins


cause


other s/sx

dysfunctional valve > retrograde flow


skin ulcerations, superficial thrombi, infections

phlegmasia alba dolens

milk leg - pregnancy - iliofem vein thrombosis

MMPS and fibroblasts - what stage of wound healing

contracture

wound dehiscence

rupture of previously closed


insufficient vascularization

most common cause of delayed wound healing

infection

post-SAH complication, timing, prevention

vasospasm 4-10 days later, clean CT


dx w/ transcranial color doppler


tx: nimodipine - ca blockre

vitamin deficiency more common in alcoholics folate or b12?

folate

mallory weiss tears cause

increased intrabd pressure due to vomiting


may also have hiatal hernia

lung transplant - common infection


pulmonary edema due to what path?

CMV - owl's eyes


edema due to ischemia-reperfusion

CNS necrosis type, mechanism

lysosomal digestion> liequefactive

which type of necrosis preserves tissue architecture

coag necrosish

hemorrhagic infarcts - what situation?

dual blood supply - as w/ lung, CNS reperfusion

MCD following what (3)


tx

respiratory infection, immunization, atopy


tx: corticosteroids

CHF renal signaling

increased sympathetic activity

BNP - release, activity

released in response to ventricular stretch


vasodil, diuresis, decreased BP


same as ANP

16sRNA in prokaryotes

on 30s subunit, complementary to shine dalgarno of mRNA > initiate translation

translation subunits in proks

30s and 50s subunits

23s subunit in proks

part of 50s


peptide bond formation

driver of translocation in prok translation

elongation factor G and GTP

tx of acute and open angle glauc that affects kidneys and MOA

CA inhibitor, reduces bicarb reabs in kidneys


decreased aqueous humor formation

SLE hypersensitivity types

type II


nephritis - type III



renal pathology most common in SLE

proliferative glomerulonephritis

systemic sclerosis aka, antibodies

diffuse


anti-dna topoisomerase (scl-70a)

limited sclerosis aka

crest - anti-centromere, raynauds, esophageal dysmotility, scleroderma, telangiectasia

sjogren's ABs

anti-ro (ssa)


anti-LA (ssb)

terbutaline function, MOA

beta agonist


inhibit uterine contractions to delay labor