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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the difference between sensation and perception?
Sensation is the stimulation of receptor cells that send messages to the brain
Perception is the interpretation of the sensation.
What are subliminal messages? What is priming? How effective is subliminal persuasion?
Sumblinal messages are messages to the unconscious mind.
Subliminal persuasion not effective.
Priming is when subliminal stimulus affects our response to related stimulus. after seeing bread you can more easily detect butter.
What is transduction? Where does it take place?
-part of process of sensation-transduction converts energy into action potentials which are transmitted along axons toward the CNS where it is integrated
What are sensory receptors? What do they do? What is adaptation?
-Also part of process of sensation-sensory receptors initiate transduction
What are wavelength, frequency, and amplitude? How do they affect our perception of light and sound?
-Sensory Energy- light and sound travel through space in waves. Waves have properties that determine how we interpret light and sound.
-Wavelength- distance between waves
-Frequency- waves per unit per time
-Amplitude- height of waves
Shorter wave length, higher frequency=bluish colors and high pitched sounds
Longer wave length, low frequency=reddish colors and low pitches sounds
Smaller amplitude=dull colors, soft sounds
Greater amplitude=bright colors, loud sounds
Are all forms of electromagnetic radiation visible to humans?
No, all forms of electromagnetic radiation are NOT visible to humans.
Know the major cell types of the retina and the flow of information therein.
Photoreceptors- 2 types (cones and rods)
-cones: ability to see color perform best in good lighting, concentrated at back of retina called fovea where vision is sharpest, visual acuity-ability to see detail
-rods: help you see in low light, located around retina, around sides.
How does the image coming in through the eye differ from the image that falls on the retina?
The image is upside down and reversed when coming through the retina.
1. rods and cones
2. bipolar cells
3. ganglion cells
4. optic nerves- carries info to brain where thalamus receives and distributes info
5. blind spot- after optic nerve leaves the eye there are no receptor cells creating a blind spot
Where is the visual cortex?
occipital lobe
Know theories of color vision and how they explain our ability to see color, why both are correct, what one explains that the other cannot.
The Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
By mixing pure versions of green, red and blue lights we can see every color visible to us. Ratio of activity of different cones tell us what we're seeing.

Opponent Process Thoery of Color Vision
Three pairs of color-sensitve visual elements
Red/Green- Blue/Yellow- Black/White
Members of each pair inhibit their partner.
Know structures of the ear and their functions. Where are the auditory receptors?
Outer Ear:
Phinna- funnels sounds into ear canal
Ear canal
Middle Ear
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Hammer, anvil and stirrup little bones that amplify sound
Oval window
Inner Ear
Basilar membrane
Hair cells → trigger↓
Auditory nerve
Semicircular canals- balance
Where is the auditory cortex?
temporal lobe
What are the two types of deafness and how do they differ?
The 2 types of deafness are:
Conduction Deafness- 3 bones struck together/eardrum popped- middle ear damaged.
Nerve/Sensorinueral Deafness- damage to hair cells of auditory nerve.
Cochlear implants
How do the two theories we covered explain how we perceive pitch? How are they both correct?
Pitch Theory
Different pitch sounds vibrate in different place on the basilar membrane
Frequency Matching theory
Auditory nerve fires at the same rate as the sound frequency.
What are the chemical senses?
smell and taste
What is gustation?
Uses taste buds and papillaes (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)
What is unique about olfaction regarding its path through the brain?
Olfaction is the only sense in which neurons do not synapses in the thalamus.
What sensory information does our skin provide us?
Touch, temperature, pressure, pain
What is the gate-control theory? How does it explain cognitive and emotional influences on pain?
Gate-control theory says the “gate” open or close to allow pain signals to go to brain.
What are endorphins?
Endorphins are neurotransmitters that block pain signals.
Why might some people be better able to tolerate pain than others?
Because they have more endorphins.
What is meant by bottom-up and top-down processing?
Bottom-up processing is examining features of stimulus. (little kid learning to read)
Top-down processing is the perception relies on expectations, experiences, and learning.
What is the word-superiority effect?
Is that people are more accurate in recognizing a letter in the context of a word they recognize- Basket vs. Kbstea
How do schemas, perceptual sets, and context influence perception?
Schemas are knowledge frameworks
Perceptual sets are the rediness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
Context is the environment can activate a schema.
What do reversible figures illustrate?
Figure (main) and ground (background)
What is meant by gestalt?
Gestalt- “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” → people fill in missing lines to form pictures.
What do illusory contours illustrate?
fill in whats missing
What is linear perspective?
is convergence and distance
What is size, shape, and color/brightness constancy?
are consistent perceptions when sensory features change.
How can culture and experience influence our perceptions?
influence our perception of depth in photos and drawings.
What do human factors psychologists do?
Human factors psychologists use user friendly designs.
What is synesthesia?
when senses are cross-wired
What does scientific research indicate about ESP and psychics?
ESP and physics have no solid, reproductive evidence.