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14 Cards in this Set

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Stimulus

An environmental event that produces a change in the behaviour of an organism.

Response

The behavioural consequence of presenting a stimulus to an organism

Positive Reinforcer

Stimulus that increases the frequency of behaviour that leads to its presentation

Negative Reinforcer

Stimulus that increases frequency of behaviour that prevents or terminates its presentation

Discriminative Stimulus

Cueing stimulus, indicating occasions when a response will be reinforced.According to malott (2007) discriminative stimulus is 'a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced'

Aversive Stimulus

A stimulus causing an organism to behave so as to minimize exposure to it (as in negative reinforcement or punishment procedures)

Extinction

Extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that suppresses a previously conditioned response. drug seeking is a conditioned response.

Conditioned response

Drug seeking is a conditioned response that can lead to maladaptive behaviour when expressed inappropriately, manifesting as addiction.

Substance abuse

Is characterized by recurrent and clinically significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of substances, such as:Failing to fulfill major role obligationsUsing drugs in situations where it is physically hazardousOccurrence of substance related legal problemscontinued use despite legal, social or interpersonal issues problems

Craving

An intense desire to re-experience the effects of a psychoactive substance. craving is the cause of relapse after long periods of abstinence.

Physiological/psychological dependence

Outdated term referring to physical tolerance and withdrawal syndrome

Relapse

The resumption of drug seeking or drug taking behaviour after a period of abstinence. Priming, environmental cues can trigger the resumption of drug taking. stress is another major factor.Triggered by stress or being in a situation where there are environmental cues making you want to have that substance.

Priming

Refers to a new exposure to a formerly abused substance. This exposure can precipitate rapid resumption of abuse at previous levels of higher.

Sensitisation

Non associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.usually characterised as an enhancement of a response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.Sensitisation also refers to persistent hypersensitivity to the effect of a drug in a person with a history of exposure to that drug.it is one of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in craving and relapse.