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43 Cards in this Set

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Schedule I
Non research use illegal
No medical use
high addiction potential
Heroin, LSD, MDA, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, PCP, marijuana, methaqualone
Schedule II
No telephone script/refills
Medical use w/ high add pot
Strong opiods, amphetamine, cocaine, barbiturates
Schedule III
Script must be rewritten after 6 mo or 5 refills
Medical use w/ mod abuse
Weak opoids, benzphetamine, thiopental, dronabinol, steroids, ketamine
Schedule IV
Script rewritten after 6 mo/5 refills
Penalties for illegal possession
mixed opoid, benzodiazepines
Schedule V
Script same as all other nonopoids
can be dispensed w/o script
low doses codeine or mixed opoid
Psychological Dependence
compulsive drug seeking behavior for personal satisfaction despite known risks
Physical dependence
need to take drug to avoid withdraw sx
Abuse
Failure to fulfill obligations
Hazardous situations
recurrent legal problems
social problems
Dopamine in Drug Abuse
NT in reward pathway
Released by Nucleus Accumbens
Motive Circuit
Gain control mechanism that determines behavioral response to a given stimulus
Increased gain by repeated administration
Where does Impulse arise from?
Amygdala along with emotions and basic impulses
How do we decide which impulses to act on?
Control of the prefrontal cortex with the actual output from NA
Sailence of a behavioral event comes from ventral tegmental area
Most addicts have poor frontal cortex function
Opiod Information
First Pass Metabolism - need IV
Tolerance
Strong Mu agonist with high abuse
Opiod Overdose
Constricted pupils
Respiratory Depression
Hypotension
Clammy skin, nausea, drowsiness
Coma, death
Opiod Withdraw
8-10 hrs
Lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, sweating
Tremor, weakness, chills, nausea,cramps, hyperapnea
Opiod Treatment
Airway with Naloxone
Clonidine - prevent inc catechol
Methadone for detox
Sedative Hypnotic Examples
Ethanol
Barbiurates
Benzodiazepines
Sedative Hypnotic General
activators of GABA A
effects are dose dependent
Medium duration have the worst withdraw b/c long ones have built in tapering
Alcohol Overdose/Effects (Same for Barbiturates)
Slurred Speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, lack of coordination, mood changes
Alcohol Withdraw
Tremor, tachycardia, insomnia, seizures, delusions, hypertension
Alcohol Treatment (Same for Barbituates)
Clonidine, lorazapam, chlordiazepoxide, Disulfiram
Barbiturate Withdraw
Anxiety, seizures, hypertension, irratibility
Benzodiazepine Overdose/Effects
CNS depression, Respiratory Depression
Benzodiazepines Withdraw
Anxiety, hypertension, irratability
Caffeine Effects
CNS and Cardiac stimulation, coronary vasodilation, relaxes sm, stimulates sk m, weak diuretic, hypogylcemia
Caffeine withdraw
> 6 cups/day
Tachycardia, headache, fatigue
Need to taper
Caffeine General Info
Methylxanthine
peak blood conc. 1-1.5 hr
Halflife 3-6 hr
Block adenosine receptors (usually neg mod role)
Inhibit phosphodiesterase
Nicotine Central effects
Stimulation of electroencephalographic activity, euphoriant activity, dopamine release, release catecholamines, alert but relaxed
Nicotine Withrdaw
Irratible, impatient, anxiety, dysphoric, restlessness, decreased hr, weight gain
Nicotine Treatment
Nicotine replacement, Clonidien for anxiety and cravinngs, Nortriptyline and Bupropion and Fluoxetine
Cocaine Effects
Acute - Inc HR/BP, Inc arousal
Chronic - anxiety, depression, psychosis
Blocks dopamine transporter so more dopamine around
Cocaine Toxicity
No real withdraw syndrome
Overdosease are fatal
cardiac problems, cerebral vasoconstriction, seizures
Cocaine Treatment
Despiramine TCA for blocking norepi uptake to dec desire for cocaine
Floxetine to help depression
Amphetamine Effects
Pupil dilation
Increased alertness
paranoid schizophrenia like sx - delusions,
then exhaustion
Necrotizing arteritis, brain hemorrhage, renal failure, severe acute hypertensive episodes
Amphetamine withdraw
Rarely fatal overdoses - tx with haloperidol
Withdraw for many weeks - strong appetite, exhaustion, mental depression
Methamphetamine Info
Stimulates Noradrenergic neurons
more potent/longer acting than amphetamines
Tx ADHD, narcalepsy, obesity
MDMA(ectasy)
Increase free serotonin
Hallucinogenic, reduces inhibitions, medweek blues, teeth clenching, blurred vision, incr hr/bp
Death from overheating/dehydra
MDA
More toxici and more hallucinogenic than MDMA
PMA
paramethoxamphetamine
more potent than MDA or MDMA
LSD
Hyperarousal, visual and audiotry distortion,change in sense of time, impaired memory, poor judgement, paresthesias, weakness, nausea, increase BP/HR, dilated pupils
May be 5HT2 agonsit,
PCP
Phencyclidine
detachment, disorientation, loss proprioception, nystagmus, incr hr/bp
May block uptake of dopamine
Reckless acts
Marijuana
High and mellow - laugh, hungry, sharp vision, anxious, dream state
Incr hr, conjunctiva injection
Can dec testosterone levels, chronic bronchitis, CA
No withdraw sx
Antiemetic, glaucoma,
Nitric Oxide
Dreaminess, euphoria, numbness, tingling