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244 Cards in this Set

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Acid
any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water (pH < 7)
acidic solutions
solutions have have a pH scale value less than 7
activation energy
energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur
adaptation
increase from generation to generation of alleles of genes that allows a species to survive in their environment
ATP (adensosine triphosphate)
cellular fuel; produced in the mitrochondria
Alkane
CnH2n + 2
hydrocarbon with only single bonds
***2n+2, always***
alkene
hydrocarbon with one double bond
CnH2n
**the number of hydrogen atoms is ALWAYS DOUBLE the number of carbon atoms
alkyne
CnH2n-2
hydrocarbon with one triple bond
-yne=three
**2n-2**
alleles
two or more different forms of a certain gene
alveoli
Structure in the lungs that permits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur
amino acid
building blocks of proteins
anatomy
study of the structure of various organs and body systems
anion
atom or molecule with a negative charge
anterior
toward the front of the body or body structure
antibody
protein produced by a B cell in response to an antigen
arteries
blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries
atom
smallest part of the element that still retains all the original properties of the element
atomic mass
number of protons and neutrons within the nucleus of the atom; the average mass of all the known isotopes of an element
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element; the number of protons that defines a specific atom
automatic nervous system
branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls automatic body functions like heart burn and digestion
autotroph
organism that is able to produce its own food
axon
part of the nerve cell that carries impulses away from the cell body and connects one neuron with another neuron over a synapse
B cell
type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies in response to antigens; responsible for humoral immunity
base
any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water ( pH > 7)
basic solutions
solutions that have a pH scale value greater than 7
bronchial tubes
small respiratory passages that connect the trachea to the lungs
capillaries
tiny blood vessels that transport blood between arteries and veins within the body
catalyst
substance that controls the rate of a chemical reactions
cation
atom or molecule with a positive charge
cell
basic unit of all life
cell wall
outside, rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of both prokaryotic and plants cells
cellular respiration
process in which glucose is used to produce ATP
Celsius
metric temp scale defined (at standard pressure) by the melting point of ice (0 degrees C) and the boiling point (100 degrees C) of liquid water
central nervous system
branch of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
centrosome
microtubule organizing center that helps to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis
charge
positive or negative distribution within an object
Charles Darwin
evolutionary biologist who studied wild life in the 1800's and wrote "On The Origin of Species," in which he explained adaptation and natural selection
chemical bonding
chemical attraction of atoms due to their electron arrangement
chemical reaction
dynamic event that alerts the chemical makeup of a molecule; a process that chemically transforms a set of substances into another set
chemotaxis
release of chemicals by damaged cells that attract white blood cells
chlorophyll
green pigments in plants
chloroplast
organelle that contains chlorophyll and is found in plants; used to carry out photosynthesis
chromatid
one of a pair of newly duplicated chromosomes that are still attached to one another; a pair of matching "sister" chromatids make up the duplicated chromosome
chromosomes
condensed, single, very long strands of DNA double helix located in the nucleus of a cell and containing hundreds of genes
chyme
mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach
cilia
tiny hairs in the bronchial tubes that keep the airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs
circulatory system
transportation highway for the entire body (aka the cardiovascular system)
codon
group of three nucleotides on RNA or DNA that encodes for a single, specific amino acid
connective tissue
connects different structures of the body; includes bones, cartilage. adipose tissues (fats) and blood vessels
covalent
sharing electrons between atoms
cristae
series of folds formed by the inner membrane of mitochondrion
crude birth rate
number of childbirths per 1,000 people per year
crude death rate
number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
crystalline order
atoms arranged in a highly ordered state
cytokines
chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
cytokinesis
division and separation of cytoplasm from one cell into two new cells; begins in late anaphase and completes in telophase
cytoplasm
rich protein fluid with gel-like consistency that houses organelles
deductive reasoning
method whereby conclusions follow from a general principle
deep
away from or below the body surface (opposite of superficial)
dendrites
branched extensions of the neuron that receive impulses (electric messages) from other neurons and stimuli
density
ratio of mass per volume for a substance
dependent variable
depends of another variable
diapedsis
process of white blood cells squeezing through the capillary slits in response to cytokines
diaphragm
dome-shaped muscle located immediately below the lungs that stimulates inhalation and exhalation by contacting and relaxing
diatomic molecule
molecule consisting of two atoms
digestion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods
digestive system
manufactures enzymes that break down food so that nutrients can be easily passed into the blood for use through the body; consists of all organs from the mouth to anus involved in ingestion, breakdown, and processing of food
diploid cell
containing two sets chromosomes
distal
away from the origin of the body part of a point of attachment (opposite of proximal)
DNA
a molecule that exists as a double stranded helix made from sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases
dorsal body cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
duodenum
first section of the small intestine
effectors
glands and muscles that are innervated and extend away from the spinal cord
electrolysis
use of electric current to drive the breakdown of a molecule
electronegativity
ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself
electrons
negatively charged subatomic particles found in various orbits around the nucleus
element
substance that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means; each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons
embryo
early development of an animal or a plant after fertilization
endocrine system
controls body functions; glands in this system secrete hormones that travel though the blood to organs throughout the body to regulate processes such as growth and metabolism
endoplasmic reticulum
tubular transport network with the cell that appears as a stack of flattened membranous sacs
enzyme
protein catalyst; chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reactions in living tissue w/o itself being chemically altered; a chemical that breaks down proteins, carbs, and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed through the wall of the intestine into the bloodstream
epithelial tissue
provides covering (such as skin tissue) or produces secretions (such as glandular tissue); commonly exists in sheets and does not have its own blood supply
eukarya
organism that contains cellular organelles; organism that has cells that contain nuclei (protists, plants, fungi and animals)
excision repair
mechanism that inspects the DNA for damage and attempts to repair it
expiration
act of exhaling carbon dioxide from the body
fact
info based on real, provable events or situations
fertility rate
average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years (ages 15-44)
flagella
long, whip like structure used for cellular movement in certain prokaryotic cells
frontal section
cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions; coronal section
gametes
cells of reproduction
ganglia
collection of nerve cell bodies
gene
portion of DNA on a chromosome that provides info for an organism's characteristics; genetic blueprint for a the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell
genome
complete set of DNA for an individual; contains all genes
genotype
organism's underlying genetic makeup or code
germ cells
reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum
globular protein
protein that is roughly spherical in shape
golgi apparatus
structure involved in packaging and transporting proteins in the cells
haploid cell
one set of chromosomes
heart
organ that rhythmically contracts and pumps blood throughout the body
heat
flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
Systolic pressure
The top number on a blood pressure reading
heat of vaporization
amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas
heterotroph
organisms than canNOT produce its own food
heterozygous
having received different alleles for a particular trait from each parent
homeostasis
a stable state in which all the needs of a body are met and all of the organ systems are working properly together
homologous
similar in size and function
homozygous
having received the same allele for a particular trait from both parents
hydrocarbon
compound whose structure is entirely compose of hydrogen and carbon atoms
hypothesis
possible explanation formulated to answer questions that are being investigated; involves making predictions that follow from the initial statement of a problem
immune system
tissues, cells and organs that work together to fight off illness and disease
incomplete dominance
dominant and recessive genotypes interact to produce an intermediate phenotype
independent variable
does not depend on another variable; affects the dependent variable
inductive reasoning
arriving at a general principle from specific facts
inferior
toward the lower end of the body or body structure (opposite of superior)
inspiration
act of breathing in oxygenated air
integumentary system
protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temp, serves as a barrier to pathogens; consists of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails
interferon
protein that inhibits the reproduction of a virus
intermediate
between the medial and lateral aspects of the body or body structure
interphase
process that occurs prior to mitosis; occurs when the cell must duplicate its DNA, increase the amount of organelles and cytoplasm, and synthesize protein in preparation for cell division; three stages of interphase are G1 (gap one), Synthesis, and G2 (gap 2)
ion
positively or negatively charges atom
ionic
electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges
isotope
atoms with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons
Joule
a common metric unit of energy (1 calorie = 4.2 Joules)
Kelvin
metric temp scale defined by an absolute zero reference point (0 kelvin = -273 degrees C, the temp at which molecular motion stops)
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
latent heat
heat per mass needed for a phase change at a constant temp
lateral
toward the outer sides of the body or body structure (opposite of medial)
Law of Conservation of Energy
if a system is closed, the total amount of energy in the system does not change; however, energy can be changed from one form to another
leukocytes
white blood cells
Lewis structure
symbolic representation of covalent bonding between atoms
light year
distance that light travels within 1 year
lungs
paired organs that take in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide
lymphatic system
supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes; returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessels; consists of the lymph nodes, the lymph vessels that cary lymph, the spleen, the thymus, and the tonsils
lyse
Latin word for "break." Used in biology and chemistry to mean rupture or destruction of the cell membrane, a cell structure, or a molecule
lysosome
organelle containing digestive enzymes capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cellular parts
mass
quantity of matter within an object
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
medial
toward the middle of the body or body structures
meiosis
process by which gametes reduce their DNA content
metabolic pathways
chemical reactions within a cell
metabolism
chemical reaction in living organisms used to maintain life
metalloids
elements that may accept or donate electrons readily; possess a mixture of metallic and non metallic properties
metals
elements that readily donate electrons and are good conductors of electricity; donate highly conductive electrons to their environment
metaphase plate
disc extending across the nuclear area on which the chromosomes are found at metaphase just prior to separation of the chromosomes during mitosis
microtubules
cellular tracks that form the mitotic spindle during mitosis
microvilli
microscopic projections of tissues that make up the villi
midsagittal section
sagittal section made down the median of the body
mismatch repair
mechanism that scans over the DNA to find any mismatches of nitrogenous bases
mitochondrion
powerhouse of the cell
mitosis
process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell
molecule
group of chemically bonded atoms that possesses characteristics independent of atoms themselves
muscle tissue
dedicated to producing movement; three types include skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
muscular system
consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints
mutagen
substance that induces mutations
mutation
permanent change in DNA sequence
natural selection
process in which individuals of a species carrying certain mutations are better able to survive and reproduce in their natural environment than others members of the species (survival of the fittest)
nervous system
serves as the body's control system; consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
nervous tissue
structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; made up of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body
neurons
specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit electrical impulses
neutron
neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
nitrogenous base
molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells
nucleic acid
chain of nucleotides
nucleotide
condensed DNA of a cell
nucleus
central region of an atom; large organelle that is the control center of the entire cell
orbital shell
arrangement of electrons within a specific region around the nucleus
organ
two or more tissue types that work together to perform a specific function
organ system
group of organs in an organism working together to perform a specific function
organelle
tiny organ
organic chemistry
study of the structure and properties of carbon compounds
organism
living body made up of several organ systems
organism
living body made up of several organ systems
oxidation
electron donation by a chemical group that leaves that group with one less electron and a more positive change
parasympathetic nerve
branch of automatic nervous system that is active when a person is eating or at rest
pathogen
any disease causing agent
pentose
type of sugar
perforin
pore forming protein
peripheral nervous system
branch of the nervous system that extends outside of the central nervous system and consists of the cranial and spinal nerves
peristalsis
rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestines that propel food toward the colon and anus
peroxisome
organelle used to rid the body of toxic components
pH
measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution; the scale used to measure the strength of acidic solutions
pH indicator
chemical detector of hydrogen ions to visually determine acidity (color change)
phagocytosis
engulfing pathogens by white blood cells
phase transition
alteration of the physical state of a substance between a solid, liquid and gas
phenotype
physical expression of genetic traits
phosphate group
molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links ajoining bases together
photosynthesis
process carried out by a green plants, green algae, and certain bacteria, in which energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll and used for synthesis of glucose
physical bonding
physical connection between atoms (or molecules) that do not alter the chemical nature of the atoms (or molecules)
physiology
study of the function of the various organs and body systems
plasmids
small circular portions of DNA not associated with the nucleoid
polar molecule
possesses both positive and negative regions
posterior
toward the back of the body or body structure (opposite of anterior)
potential energy
stored energy
products
substances formed as the result of chemical reactions
prokaryote
single-celled organism lacking defined cellular organisms or a nucleus
protein
compound composed of a large number of amino acids joined in a particular type of chemical bond called a peptide bond
proton
positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom
proximal
close to the origin of the body part or point of attatchment (opposite of distal)
Punnett square
graphical way to show all possible combinations of alleles given the two parents genotypes
purine
nitrogenous base with two rings (adenine and guanine)
pyloric sphincter
muscle that separates the stomach from the duodenum and slowly releases chyme from the stomach into the small intestine (duodenum)
pyrimidine
nitrogenous base with one ring (thymine, cytosine, and uracil)
quantitative
relating to numbers
reduction
electron acceptance by a chemical that produces a more negative charge on the group
reflex
automatic response to a stimulus that occurs when neurons transmit a message to the spinal cord, which in turn sends a message back to the muscles to react before the message is transmitted to the brain
reproductive system
main purpose is to produce offspring; houses hormnes that encourage or suppress activites within the body (ie libido and aggression) and influence the development of masculine or feminine body characteristics; consists of the testes and the penis or the ovaries, vagina, and breasts
respiratory system
organ system that provides for air exchange by supplying tissues with oxygenated blood and removing carbon dioxide
ribosome
organelle responsible for synthesizing protein within the cell from amino acids
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
single stranded molecule made from sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases; required for the transfer and translation of the DNA code within a cell
sagittal section
cutmade along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left parts
salt
neutral product of an anion and a cation
saturated hydrocarbon
chemical structure composed entirely of single bond
secretion
process of moving proteins outside of the cell
sensory neurons
neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the brain and spinal cord
sensory somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, amd associated ganglia; controls voluntary actions of the body
skeletal system
supports and protects the body and its organs;supplies a framework that, when used in conjuction with the muscles, creates movement; serves as storage for minerals (ie calcium, phosphorus) consists of bones cartilage, ligaments, and joints
specific heat
energy required to raise one unit of mass in a substance bu 1 degree Celsius
stem cells
can divide and remain undifferentiated; gives rise to a variety of more-specialized cells
stimulus
change in the environment that triggers a physical response
substrate
molecule acted upon by an enzyme
superficial
toward or at the body surface (opposite of deep)
superior
toward or at the upper end of body or body structure (opposite of inferior)
sympathetic nerve
branch of the automatic nervous system that is activated when a person is excited or scared
synapse
fluid filled gap that connects the axon of one nerve cell with the cell of another
T cell
lymphocyte that is responsible for cellular immunity
taxonomy
classification of organisms into universally accepted taxons; names reflect the organism's evolutionary heritage
tissue
collection of cells in an organism that have a similar function and structure
trachea
airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tubes; also known as the windpipe
transcription
process of cells copying the instruction from the DNA into RNA
translation
process of protein reduction from messenger RNA
transverse section
cut made along a horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower regions; cross section
triple point
temp and pressure at which a substance will coexist as a solid, liquid, and gas
unsaturated hydrocarbons
a chemical molecule containing at least one double or triple bond
urinary system
helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body; regulates the acid base balance of the blood; removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body
vaccine
inactivated form of a pathogen that stimulated the body to produce antibodies for future protection
vacuole
basic storage unit of a cell that hold various compounds
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
variable
unknown quantity in an expression or equation
veins
blood vessels that transport unoxygenated blood from from the capillaries back to the heart
ventral body cavity
contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; the diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal pelvic cavities
vesticles
small membrane-bound sacs within the cytoplasm used to transport proteins or other substances in and out of the cell
villi
finger like projections in the mucosa of the small intestine lining; produce a pleated appearance; each villus is supplied with blood and has a lymphatic vessels for absorption
work
result of any change in energy
zygote
mass of cells formed after an egg is fertilized and begins dividing