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58 Cards in this Set

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(aviation employment Considerations)
Six Functions of Offensive Air Support
1. Offensive Air Support
2. Anti-air Warfare
3. Assault Support
4. Air Reconnaissance
5. Electronic Warfare
6. Control of Aircraft and Missiles
(aviation employment Considerations)
Offensive Air Support
1. Deep Air
2. Close Air
(aviation employment Considerations)
Deep Air Support
Air Interdiction: Air Ops conducted to dst, neutralize, or delay en potential before it can be effective against friendly forces.
Armed Reconnaissance: Locating and atking tgts of opportunity along assigned general areas or along assigned ground routes and not atking specific/located tgts.
Strike Coordination and Recon(SCaR): Acquiring and reporting deep air support tgts and coordinating armed recon or air interdiction missions
(aviation employment Considerations)
Close Air Support
Preplanned: Planned in Advance
Scheduled: Executed a specific time on a specific tgt. Most economical use of aircraft
On-Call: Aircraft that are preloaded for an array of tgts and tgt area

Immediate Missions: Requests that arise during battle, strike, unanticipated tgts, and are urgent in nature.
Divert: Aircraft already in use, require aircraft to be re-tasked via radio IOT support different mission
On-Call: employed from standby status
(aviation employment Considerations)
Antiair Warfare
To Dst or reduce to an acceptable level the en air and missle threat

1.Offensive AAW
2. Air Def
(aviation employment Considerations)
Offensive AAW
Preemptive measures: Obj is to weaken en air threat before the en can make use of air def and prevent attainment of MAGTF obj.
i. Air Strikes on en airfields to dst or dmg aircraft, facilities, logo support
ii. atks on cmd and ctrl fac and surveillance sys
iii. Air strikes on en aircraft supply and support such as railroads and convoys
iv. off air to air sweeps to search and dst en air

Suppression of En Air Def (SEAD): Gain access to defined zone of airspace that allows MAGTF operations.
i. Direct confrontation of en air def with ground forces
ii. Direct Conf of en air def with air forces
iii. Direct Conf of en air def with naval forces
iv. c&c warfare

Local Air Superiority Measures: Prevent en residual air threat from affecting the execution of friendly ops .
i. Off combat air patrols
ii. escort and self-escort tactics
iii. aircraft on-board countermeasures and maneuvers
(aviation employment Considerations)
Air Defense AAW
Dst atking en aircraft or missiles or to nullify or reduce effectiveness of such an attack.

Active air Def: Aircraft, interceptor missiles, air def arty, non-air def wpns and electronic countermeasures

Passive Air def: cover, concealment, camouflage, deception, dispersion and protective construction
(aviation employment Considerations)
Assault Support
1. combat assault transport: Rapidly deploy forces, bypass obstacles or redeploy forces
2. air delivery: Air delivery of troops, supplies and equipment
3. aerial refueling: provides refueling to F/A18, EA6B, AV-8, CH53, MV-22
4. air evacuation: Transport personnel and equipment from fwd op base or remote areas
5. tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel (TRAP): Recovery of personnel and equipment while avoiding additional loss
6. air logo support: Performed by fixed wing to deliver troops, equipment and supplies to areas beyond helicopter range/lift capability
7. battlefield illumination: light up the sky
(aviation employment Considerations)
Purpose of Air Reconnaissance
Strategic: information used to affect policy on a national or international level

Tactical: information concerning terrain, weather and the disposition, composition, movement, installations, lines of com, electronic coms of en forces
(aviation employment Considerations)
Types of Air Reconnaissance
Visual: Information by looking through the window, through sensors and verbally passing what is seen to ground forces

Multi-Sensor Imagery: passing of imagery from aircraft to ground forces

Electronic: information on how en is using the electromagnetic specturm
(aviation employment Considerations)
Current Platforms Air Recon: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
RQ-7 Shadow 200
(aviation employment Considerations)
Current Platforms Air Recon: Aircraft
EA-6B: Electronic Recon, LITENING II
AH-1W: Night Tgt System (VHS)
FA18D: ATARS- Advanced tactical airborne recon system, LITENING II
UH-1N: BRITESTAR (8mm cassette)
(aviation employment Considerations)
Electronic Warfare
Electronic Attack(EA): uses electromagnetic energy to determine, reduce, exploit or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum

Electronic Warfare Support(ES): Search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy

Electronic Protection(EP): protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or en employment of EW
(aviation employment Considerations)
Fundamentals of Control of Aircraft and Missiles
Integrating Function: Marine Air Command and Control System (MACCS)
1. Enhance unity of effort
2. Integrate the elements of the command and
control system
3. Disseminate common situational awareness
(aviation employment Considerations)
Methods of Aviation Control: Air Direction
Air Direction:
i. Air Tasking Orders
ii. fulfilling reqs of air tasking orders (Specific
aircraft for certain missions)
iii. changing or altering rescheduled missions
iv. processing air support requests
v. collecting info concerning mission status
vi. moving ground based air def to new pos
vii. adjusting aircraft and surface to air wpns unit
unit mission assignments within previously
set parameters due to changes in the air
ground situation
(aviation employment Considerations)
Methods of Aviation Control: Air Control
Airspace Management: Coordination, integration and regulation of the use of airspace defined dimensions

Airspace Control: Authority to direct the maneuver of aircraft so that the best use is made of assigned air space
1. Positive Control: Relies on positive id, tracking
and direction of aircraft w/i a particular
2. Procedural Control: relies on combination of
previously agreed upon and promulgated
orders and procedures
(aviation employment Considerations)
MACCS Elements
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron (MTACS): Corresponding Agency: Tactical Air Command Center (TACC): Responsible for receiving requests for aslt support and offensive air support and producing the air tasking order

Marine WIng Communication Squadron (MWCS): Primary communication org w/i the Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW)

Marine Air Support Squadron (MASS): Corresponding Agency: Direct Air Support Center (DASC): Direction of assault support and off air suport through procedural control.

Fixed Wing Marine Unmanned Squadron (VMU) Air Recon

Low Altitude Air Defense (LAAD) BN: Provide close-in, low altitude surface-to-air weapons fires defense of the MAGTF

Marine Air Control Squadron (MACS): Corresponding Agency: Tactical Air Operations Center (TAOC): Primary agency for Anti Air warfare with positive control through air traffic control.
(aviation employment Considerations)
CAS types of terminal control
Type 1- FAC and Aircraft can see the target
Type 2- FAC or Aircraft can see the target
Type 3- Multiple targets require clearance
(aviation employment Considerations)
Conditions For CAS
• Effective training and proficiency.
• Planning and integration.
• Command, control, and communications (C3).
• Air superiority.
• Target marking and acquisition.
• Streamlined and flexible procedures.
• Appropriate ordnance.
• Favorable weather.
(aviation employment Considerations)
Airspace Control Measures
Control Points- Route aircrews to their targets
Contact Points-Fixed wing control point: Position where the mission leader makes radio contact with air control agency.
Initial Point: Starting point for bomb run to the target
Holding Area: Rotary Wing: Occupied while awaiting tgts missions
Battle Position: Airespace coordination area that contains firing points
(aviation employment Considerations)
Inline 2 of the 9line brief, what unit of measurement is heading given to the aircraft?
Degrees magnetic
(aviation employment Considerations)
In line 3 of the 9line what unit of measurement is distance given for a fixed wing aircraft? For Rotary wing?
For fixed wing, nautical miles to the nearest tenth; rotary is given in meters to the nearest 100m
(aviation employment Considerations)
What differences occur in the 9line when handling fixed wing versus rotary?
Line 1: Fixed wing uses IP and rotary wing uses BP
Line 2: No,offset for rotary wing
Line 3: fixed wing is in nautical miles to the nearest .1 NM and rotary wing is meters to the nearest 100 meters
(aviation employment Considerations)
What are the three conditions that must be met for the "Cleared hot" call during a type 1 Control?
Attacking aircraft is "tally" the target or the mark
Terminal controller is "tally" the target
Terminal controller is "visual" the aircraft
Preliminary Inquiry
Quick informal investigative tool that can be used to determine initially whether a particular incident is serious enough to warrant some form of JAGMAN investigation.
Method of Inquiry
The convening authority may conduct a PI personally or appoint a member of the command to do so
Command Options
1. Take no further action
2. Conduct a command investigation
3. Convene a litigation-report investigation
4.Convene a court or board inquiry
Reporting the results of PI's
after deciding which of the command options to exercise, the CA is to report the decision to his immediate superior in the chain of command.
Review of Command Decision
Which option to exercise is a matter of command discretion. Superiors in the CoC may direct that an option be reconsidered
Command Investigation
Most common. CI functions to search out and develop, assemble, analyze and record all available information relative to the incident under investigation.
When is a CI required
Aircraft mishaps
ship stranding
loss of government funds or property
firearm accidents
security violations
injury to service members
How is a CI convened?
Must be in writing, when the CA feels that the investigation of an incident is impractical or inappropriate for the command investigation
Time periods for a CI
Report is due normally 30 days from the date of the convening order
Litigation Report
Admin investigation. Primary purpose is to prepare and defend the legal interests of the US Navy in claims proceedings or civil liitgation
When is a Line of Duty/Misconduct Determinations required?
Every case in which a member of the Naval service incurs a disease or injury that may result in:
1.Permanent disability
2, physical inability to perform duty for a period exceeding 24 hours

LOD is prohibited in death cases
What Constitutes "Line of Duty"?
Naval personnel while on active duty service is presumed to have been incurred "In the Line of Duty" unless there is clear and convincing evidence that it was incurred.

1. As a result of members own misconduct. willful neglect which demonstrates a reckless disregard for foreseeable and likely consequences.
2. while avoiding duty by deserting
3. while absent without leave and such absence materially interfered with in the performance of required military duties (excess of 24 hours)
4. While confined under sentence of a court martial that included an unremitted dishonorable discharge
5. while confined under sentence of an offense that is defined as a felony by law of the jurisdiction where convicted
6. As intentionally self-inflicted(Ie: Shooting yourself in the foot)
Types of Negligence
1. Simple Negligence: Exceeding the speed limit by 5 MPH
2. Gross Negligence: Exceeding the speed limit by 40 MPH knowing you have no brakes
3. Proximate Cause: If the injuries are caused by a meteor falling on the car, the gross negligence involved in driving a car at a high rate of speed without brakes is not the proximate cause of the injuries.
4. Reasonably Foreseeable: If the injuries are caused by a bridge collapsing underneath the car and a Greyhound bus following the car into the water and landing on top of the car, the gross negligence involved in driving the car without brakes does not make those injuries reasonably foreseeable.
Three possible misconduct/line of duty determinations:
1. In the line of duty and not due to misconduct
2. Not in the line of duty and not due to misconduct
3. Not in the line of duty and due to the members own misconduct
(Develop Training Plans)
Training Principles
1. Train as you fight
2. Make Commanders responsible for training
3. Use standards-base training
4. Use performance oriented training
5. Use mission oriented training
6. Train to sustain proficiency
7. Train to challenge
(Develop Training Plans)
Commanders Responsibilities
1. Provide clear commanders intent/guidance throughout the process
2. Identify training objectives clearly
3. Plan training events and activities
4. Arrange support
5. Ensure that the resources needed to conduct training are available
6. Ensure that training is conducted
7. Supervise and evaluate individual and unit proficiency
8. Supervise and evaluate training seasons, instructional quality and UTM procedures.
(Develop Training Plans)
Phases of the Systems Approach to Training & Education
1. Analysis Phase: The analysis phase determines the unit’s performance objectives. The unit’s performance objectives are written as tasks that the unit must be prepared to accomplish

2. Design Phase: Design and layout a trainign plan for a unit.
Long Range planning focuses on major
exercises and the training to meet the
commanders METL for the next 18-24 months

Short Range (quarterly) planning projects the
training of collective tasks and drills of lower
echelon units and all training events to be
conducted in the next few months.
3. Development Phase commanders ensure that all logistical and background preparations are completed prior to the actual start of the training evolution

4. Implementation phase training plans are executed

5. Evaluation Phase
(develop Training Plans)
Types of training schedule
Long range plan
Mid-Range plan
Short Range Plan
Monthly/weekly schedule
(Movement To Contact)
A offensive operation designed to gain or re-gain contact with the en and develop the siuation
(Movement To Contact)
Three levels of en contact
Contact Remote: Behind friendly lines, greatest threat is from aircraft or artillery
Contact Possible: En ground activity exists
Contact Imminent: En contact will happen
(Movement To Contact)
Coordinating Insturctions
IA Drills
Battle Drills
Rotation PLan
Linkup plan
Responsibilities of each unit
(Aviation Ordnance)
Four Categories
(Aviation Ordnance)
Weapons kill and destroy in 3 ways
(Aviation Ordnance)
MK80 Series Bombs
Mk-82 = 500lb Bomb
Mk-83 = 1000lb Bomb
Mk-84 = 2000lb Bomb
(Aviation Ordnance)
Guided Bomb Units (GBU)
Mk-82 + Laser Guidance package = GBU 12
Mk-83 + Laser Guidance Package = GBU 16
Mk-84 + Laser Guidance Package = GBU 10
(Aviation Ordnance)
Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM)
Mk-82 + GPS guidance Package = GBU 38
Mk-83 + GPS guidance Package = GBU 32
Mk 84 + GPS guidance package = GBU 31
(Aviation Ordnance)
Fire Bombs
Mk77 FIrebomb
Fuel air explosive (FAE)
(Aviation Ordnance)
Fragmentation Bomb
Cluster Bomb unit (CBU)
(Plt In The Def)
Types of Def Operations
(Plt In The Def)
Defensive Techniques
Battle Position
Strong Point
Reverse Slope
(Plt In The Def)
Types of fighting positions
primary- best available for an individual to accomplish assigned mission

Alternate: located so that individuals can accomplish same mission when primary position becomes untenable

Supplementary: Guard against atk from directions other than those from which the main atk is expected
(Plt In The Def)
Two types of def
(Plt in the Off)
Two types of attacks in the off
(Plt in the Off)
Platoon level attacks will be ___________ or __________
Frontal or flanking