Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/78

Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

FF

Is circuit of device containing active elements, capable of assuming one of either two stable states at a given time

Latching

The holding of a circuit at a particular state after it has been driven to that state by an external signal

Clock

A device the generates periodic signals used for timing and synchronization. Also describes the signal produced by the clock. Abbreviated CK or CLK

Edge Triggered

Certain FF that require a change in the clock signal as a condition for switching states

Leading Edge

Low to high change of the clock pulse. Also called up clock

Trailing edge

High to low change in the clock pulse. Also called down clock

Characteristics of FF

They have one to five inputs, depending on the type and application. All have two outputs.

When high....

Indicates that the FF is in the Set(S) state and storing a binary number of 1. The Q Not output is low or 0.

When low...

The FF is in the RESET(R) state, storing a binary number of 0. The Q Not output is high or 1

Inputs required to change he state are...

Circuit design, transistors used and manufacturers design.

Logic probe is...

Valuable for troubleshooting digital integrated logic circuits

Logic probe is also known as...

Integrated circuit testing device

Ideal Logic probe will...

Detect a steady logic level, detect a train of logic pulses, detect a high speed transient pulse, detect an open circuit, have over voltage protection, small light and easy to handle, accommodate different logic families

Multivibrator

Circuit that is commonly used for clock or timing pulses. Used to start, stop, or synchronize various circuits in a set or system.

Multivibrators produce...

Balanced and unbalanced square waves

Triggered

Requires a trigger pulse

Free-running

Doesn't require a trigger pulse

Astable Multivibrator

Oscillate at a fixed frequency and have no stable state(free running). Outputs are identical except for polarity inversion.


During operation one transistor is cutoff while the other operates.

Base Recovery Time

The time it takes for the RC network to discharge to cutoff

Monostable Multivibrator

Also called one shot. It's a regenerative circuit with one stable condition, Q1off and Q2 on.


Countdown is accomplished when ⬆️ in the t of the base circuit and ⬇️ the time b/w the input trigger pulse

Bistable Multivibrator

Also called Eccles-Jordan. Produces the best quality square wave. Two stable states. Often called Flip-Flop. Requires two triggers to complete one cycle, positive or negative.

Registers

A device that is used for the temporary storage of binary data in order to facilitate arithmetic, logic, or data transfer operations. Accomplished the register has to receive data, maintain data until needed, and transfer to other computers as required by computer programs.

Register is composed of...

Bistable elements such as magnetic cores or FF. # of bistable elements is determined by word length.

Modulus is determined by...

Number of stages used. 2n

Registers have what mode of access...

Parallel or serial mode

Mode of access is...

Method of inserting or extracting data into or out of a register.

Parallel mode of access is...

Separate gating circuit for each data bit that's applied to or taken from register. Application of a single read in or read out clock pulse, all data bits transferred simultaneously

Serial mode of access is...

Data bits transferred sequentially over a single gate circuit line. Separate read in or read out pulse required for each date bit.

Access time refers to...

The amount of time between a request to the register for info and the moment it becomes available at the desired location. Access time is dependent on the mode of access.

Volatile storage...

Is when the stored data is lost when the applied power is removed


Ex: FF

Nonvolatile storage is...

A storage device that stores data for long periods of time without external power


Ex: CD, DVD, hard drives

Stored register temporarily...

Stores binary data until it's called for by other computer circuits.


Configured for parallel access, receives data simultaneously.

Shift Registers

Stored data can be shifted left or right with clock or shift pulse.


Used for serial to parallel and parallel to serial conversions and x and / of binary #.

Serial-to-parallel conversion...

Data is read into the register serially and read out in parallel

Parallel-to-serial

Data is read into the register in parallel and read out serially

All shift registers can be used in...

the serial-in or serial-out mode, but not all have ll in or ll out capability.

Scaling is a method...

Where data is loaded into a shift register either serially or in parallel and then shifted serially.

Scaling is performed to...

Change the notation or magnitude of s number


Change the value of a variable to keep it within the operating range of the computer

Most Significant Digit...

Must not be shifted out of the register

Sealed data...

Is read from the register using the parallel outputs

Clocks are...

Used to ensure proper timing of events


Clock pulses are used to enable and disable circuits and permit operations to begin and others to end in a sequence of time.

The simplest clock is...

Free-running multivibrator.


Also known as astable multivibrator.

Free-running Multivibrator

Alternates between two states.


Output are = in frequency and amp but opp in polarity.


Frequency and balance can be changed by changing R2C1 and R3C2

Most modern equipment uses...

Crystal-controlled oscillators for timing circuitry.

Ripple Counter

Consists of FF in series.


Domino effect(Ripple)


Also called asynchronous counter.


0000-1111


0-15


Initially all FF are RESET


Disadvantage is it takes its time

Synchronous Counter

Controlled by master clock


Applied to all FF simultaneously


AND gate added to ensure toggle


Initially all FF are RESET


000-111


0-7

Decade Counter

Count in units of 10


0-9


0000-1001


Same as ripple until 1001


10th clock pulse RESETs


NAND gate


Modulus is 10

Ripple Counter

Made up of R-S FF. J-K FF too


Only one FF can SET at a time then it RESETs.


1,2,3,4


Initially FF1 is SET

Down Counter

Counts from high to low.


Also called decrement counter.


Low pulse gives 111 initially until 000.


Only counter that starts off with all FF SET.


7-0


111-000

Adders are combo of...

Logic gates that combine binary values to obtain a sum.

Adders are classified according to...

Ability to accept and combine the digits.

Quarter adders...

Add two binary digits but don't produce a carry.

Augend is applied to...

The A input

Addend is applied to...

The B input

Adders are composed of...

Exclusive OR gate and combination of gates

Half-Adders are...

Circuits that combine two binary digits and produce a carry but don't use it.

Full-Adders...

Produces a sum, generates a catty and uses the carry.

Serial-Adders

Derived using adders and FF to process large numbers

"A" Register consists of...

Series configured FF that usually stores the augend and stores the sum after the addition function is complete.

"B" Register consists of...

Series connected FF and stores the addend.

"B" Register consists of...

Series connected FF and stores the addend.

Carry FF allows...

The carry of one bit time to be added in the next bit time.( delays the carry )

"B" Register consists of...

Series connected FF and stores the addend.

Encoder...

Device that converts analog to digital


Commonly call ADC

Decoder...

Is a matrix network where digital inputs produce analog.


Also call DAC

Resolution...

Is the smallest change in the analog output voltage that can occur as a result of a change in the digital input.


Determined by # of bits

Accuracy...

Is a comparison of the actual output voltage to the theoretical output level.


Expressed in %

Settling time...

Time it takes for DAC to settle within +/- 1/2 of LSD final value.

Weight...

Each but of a binary quantity is assigned a weight depending on its position.

Carry FF allows...

The carry of one bit time to be added in the next bit time.( delays the carry )

Parallel-Adding Circuits

Require one full-adder for addend and augend, except for LSD which uses half-adder bc carry not considered.


Advantage is they add numbers right away without delay.


Disadvantage is it requires more parts making it expensive.

Subtractors are similar to...

Adders except for the connection of the inputs and the terminology used.

Subtractors are classified according to...

Ability to generate and utilize a burrow.

Full-subtractors can be...

Parallel and serial

Quarter-Subtractor..

Perform binary subtraction functions but produces false answers when it becomes necessary to burrow from the next place digit in order to perform subtraction.

Half-Subtractors...

Subtracts and gives a correct difference, generates a burrow but doesn't use it.

Equation for subtraction and addition is...

D=ĀB+AB(with line on top😂)

Full-Subtractor

Generates a burrow and utilizes it