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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What does the spine consist of?

7 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

4 coccyx

what is the purpose of the vertebral column?

-to protect the spinal cord and the peripherial nerve roots

- support the body weight of the trunk and upper extremities

- provide a stable strcuture for you to move and have greater ROM

explain the evaluation of ones spine

- when born the spine is shaped as a c and is the primary curve

- the secondary curves (the lumbar and cervical) develop later as the child begins to hold their head up and stand upright

why does lordosis of the spine occur?

in order for the body to maintain an upright posture, the cervical spine and lumbar spine have to curve back to keep the spine over the sacrum

explain a motion segment

two adjacent vertebrae and the intervetebral disc - this is called a functional unit of the spine

what does 6 degrees of freedom mean?

the movements of the spine which include:

flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation

how does movement throughout the spine differ?

the boney structure and attachments create a non uniform movement throughout the spine

cervical spine: facet joints are 45 degree horizontal and are the most mobile segment of the spine

Thoracic spine: facet joints are nearly vertical and the spinous process overlap which restricts movement. Mostly rotation in this area, some lateral bending but less flexion and extension

lumbar spine: facet joints are more sagittal, most movement is flex/extend and little to no rotation

explain annulus fibrosus

sheets of lamellae that surround the nucleus. It is thicker in the anterior and lateral parts of the annulus and thinner and weaker in the posterior aspect

what reinforces the annulus?

anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

explain nucleus pulposus and disc pressure

the nucleus pulposus absorbs water which builds up internal pressure. Weight bearing compresses the disc but water is not compressible, and the pressure from the disc is exerted out in all directions but contained by the annulus and vertebral bodies

what are the presenting symptoms of disc herniation and what are the different stages of disc herniation

pain in the back often radiating into the limbs which can be a result of compression of the spinal nerves and cord

bulge- pushing into the margins of the annulus

prolapse- nucleus bulging beyond the limits of

the vertebral body

extrusion- portion of the nucleus goes through the annulus fibrosus and posterior longitudinal ligament

sequestration- displacment of nucleus with a free fragment

What is included in a low back pain assessment?

Pattern Recognition


- where do you have the most pain? (back vs leg dominant)

- is your pain always there or does it come and go? (rule out cancer, infection, mechanical)

- since your back pain began has there been any changes to your bladder/bowel function (rule out Cauda Equina Syndrome)

- what movements make it feel better or worse

- have you had this pain before

-what treatment have you had in the past

what cant you do now that you could do before?

Physical Exam:

inspect- gait, posture and contour of the spine

move- flex/extend

special tests- strength testing (ankle dorsi flexion, great toe extension, great toe flexion), single leg raise, neurological testing (babinski test)

what is spondylolysis and spondylothesis?

spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis which is often caused by movements that force the spine into hyperextension, commonly occuring in L5

spondylothesis is a complication of spondylosysis which is an anterior slippage of L5