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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what is Culture?

the values, norms, and material culture characteristic of a given group. Culture is one the most distinctive properties of human social association.

what are Cultural universals?

Values or modes behavior shared by all human cultures.

Define Marriage:

A socially approved Sexual relationship between two individuals. Marriage almost always involves two persons of opposite sexes, but in some cultures, types of Homosexual marriages are tolerated.

what is society?

A group of people who live in a particular territory, And are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups.

Define Values;

Ideas held by individuals or groups. about what is desirable, proper,good, and bad. what individuals value is strongly influenced by the society they live in.

what are Norms?

rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations.

what is material culture?

the physical objects that a society creates that influence the ways in which people live.

what is language?

the primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society, language is a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts.

what is Linguistic relativity hypothesis?

A hypothesis, based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf, that perceptions are relative to language.

what are Symbols?

items used to stand for or represent another. As in the case of a Flag, which symbolizes a Nation.

what is a signifier?

any vehicle of meaning and communication.

what are Semiotics?

the study of the ways in which non linguistic phenomena can generate meaning, as in the example of a traffic light.

Define Cultural Turn;

Sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life.

what are hunting and gathering societies?

Societies whose mode of subsistence is gained from hunting animals,fishing, and gathering edible plants.

what are pastoral societies?

societies whos subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals.

what are agrarian societies?

societies whos means of subsistence are based on agricultural production (Crop Growing)

what is industrialization?

the process of the machine production of goods.

define industrialized societies;

strongly developed nation-states in which the majority of the population works in factories or offices rather than agriculture, and most people live in urban areas.

what are nation states?

Particular types of states. characteristics of the modern world, in which governments have sovereign power within defined territorial areas, and populations are citizens who know themselves to be part of a single nation.

what is colonialism?

the process whereby western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories.

what are emerging economies?

formerly impoverished countries that over the past two or three decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base, such as India and Singapore.

what are subcultures?

values and norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society.

what is ethnocentrism?

the tendency to look at other cultures through the eyes of ones own culture, and thereby misrepresent them.

what is cultural relativism?

the practice of judging a society by its own standards.

what is socio-biology?

an approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.

define Instincts;

fixed patterns of behavior that have genetic origins and that appear in all normal animlas within a given species.

what is nationalism?

a set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community.