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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The content of the self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
The act of thinking about ourselves
Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves
Self-reference effect
The tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves
Independent view of the self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
Interdependent view of the self
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's relationships to other people; recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
Self-awareness theory
The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
Causal theories
Theories about the causes of one's own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (e.g., "absence makes the heart grow fonder"
Reasons-generated attitude change
Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one's attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize
Self-perception theory
The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
Intrinsic motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it fr find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
Extrinsic motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
Overjustification effect
The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
Task-contingent rewards
Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done
Performance-contingent rewards
Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task
Two-factor theory of emotion
The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it
Misattribution of arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
Appraisal theories of emotion
Theories holding that emotions result from people's interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
Social comparison theory
The idea that we learn about our won abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
Downward social comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we on a particular trait or ability
Upward social comparison
Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
Social tuning
The process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes
Impression Management
The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status
The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
The tendency to focus on and present positive information about oneself and to minimize negative information