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95 Cards in this Set

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Pashler and Shanks replication findings

worked on replicating studies like the elderly ones and didn't work

Cesario's findings with embodied cognition

the subjects didn't realize what they were doing was because of how they were feeling- embodied cognition (think the loneliness and warm shower study)- he was unable to replicate, found no relationship between bathing and loneliness

Latham's study- priming with picture of woman winning race

priming- people who saw picture of woman before brainstorming performed better; call center ppl did better when had image of call center workers, then woman winning race, then no photo and were too busy to notice it

Zimbardo's explanation for the Abu Ghraib

the balance of power is so unequal that they tend to be brutal places if there aren't strict regulations- situation corrupts person

social psych vs. sociology

sociology is the study of people in aggregate. social psychologists study people in aggregate too but bring an interest in the individual behavior to the study of aggregates

social psych. vs personality psych

personality psych emphasizes individual differences in behavior rather than the social situation. Personality would see how people react across different situations and what that says about them vs examining the general situation

social psych vs cog psych

the study of how people perceive, think about and remember aspects about the world. they differ in the topics they study- social: social behavior and perceptions of others, cognitive: categorization processes or memory

fundamental attribution error

the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions on behavior (angry person, say a bitch instead of thinking why they are angry)

channel factors

situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but than can have great consequences for behavior- having someone plan time/route to get vaccine


a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored info- behavior at mcdonalds vs. 4-star restaurant

automatic vs. controlled processing

automatic: non-conscious, based on emotional factors

controlled: conscious, systematic

think of the airport example- these two processes can result in different attitudes in the same person towards members of different outgroups

theory of mind

the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires

naturalistic fallacy

the claim that the way things are is the way they should be (biology is destiny)

what two factors determine statistical significance?

the size of the difference between groups in an experiment and the number of cases the finding is based on

effect size

the size of the difference between the two groups


the degree to which the particular way researchers measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results


the correlation between some measure and some outcome the measure is supposed to predict

major themes for the class

1.) humans are active but imperfect processors of info

2.) most social processing is automatic/unconscious

3.) the proximate cause of behavior is largely situational

4.) construal matters- how interpret what is happening to you impacts your behavior

5.) person X situation interactions are key

data-torturing practices

1.) p-hacking: want alpha less than .05, people round down or exclude data to make it work

2.) arbitrary stop rules- stop collecting data when it works

3.) selection of variables- only report the one that works

ways to assess people's attitudes

Likert scale, response latency, implicit attitude measure

LaPiere's Chinese people study

suggested that attitudes don't predict behavior very well

contaminating effect of introspection

the contaminating effect of introspection limited to those times when the true source of our attitude is hard to pin down

self perception theory

the theory that people come to know their own attitudes by looking at their behavior and the context in which it occurred and inferring what their attitudes might be- no arousal is invovled

system justification theory

the theory that people are motivated to see the existing sociopolitical system as desirable, fair, legitimate. extolling the virtues of the prevailing system is easier at reducing dissonance than bringing about change- ex: low income people may be poor, but they are happier- these stereotypes give ideological support to the status quo, making more people accepting of gender roles and the broader sociocultural status quo

four functions of attitudes

the adjustments function, the ego-defensive function, the expressive function and the knowledge function

elaboration likelihood model (ELM)

a model of persuasion maintaining that there are two different routes to persuasion- central and peripheral

when is central processing more likely

when people are thinking carefully about the message, when it's relevant, people are motivated, it has personal consequences, when have cognitive resources and time to process message in depth, when knowledgable about topic, call to action for after

when is peripheral processing more likely

when ppl are in a distracted environment, when have reduced motivation

source characteristics

who delivers the persuasive message- attractive sources effective, credible sources good, confident sources good

message characteristics

aspects of persuasive message including the quality of the evidence and explicitness of its conclusions- most persuasive: high quality, info is vivid, fear, tailored to norms/values/outlooks of group

audience characteristics

characteristics of those who receive a persuasive message- need for cognition (those with high need want more high-quality arguments), mood- happier easier, age- younger easier, audience size/diversity- better if more homogeneous

self-validation hypothesis

the idea that the likelihood of attitude change can depend not only on the direction and amount of thoughts people have in response to a persuasive message, but also on the confidence with which they hold the thoughts

Tesser's thought polarization hypothesis

public commitments engage us in more extensive thoughts about a particular issue, which tends to produce more extreme, entrenched attitues- rate an issue, think about it for a while, then feel stronger about it

attitude innoculation

small attacks on people's beliefs that engage their preexisting attitudes, prior commitments and background knowledge, enabling them to counteract a subsequent larger attack and thus resist persuasion- make arguments against smoking, make them more likely not to smoke

cognitive response model

what thinking about when see an ad- not what the message says but what you say to yourself when you see the message

one vs two-sided arguments

depends- 2 sided arguments can make it controversial/flip some people but can make you seem more objective; use 2 sided arguments when the audience is well-informed

sleeper effect

messages from unreliable sources exert little influence initially but over time have the potential to shift people's attitudes- only works when you hear the message then the source

apocalypse soon research

global warming ads- since global warming threatens your just-world beliefs, we dismiss it. positive message made the just-world believers less skeptical, more skeptical with negative message: same message has a different impact based on your worldview

manipulation check

a manipulation check is a measure used to determine whether or not the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on the participants

along what dimensions are impressions usually based

most of what we conclude about people based on their faces is decided instantaneously- judge is trustworthy or aggressive

pluralistic ignorance

misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences- when no one asks a question at the end of hard lecture

self-fulfilling prophecies

- the tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen- tell teachers which students will succeed and they do

framing effects- pure and spin

overall: the influence on judgment resulting from the way information is presented, such as the order of presentation or wording

pure: order of presentation- smoke while pray vs pray while smoke

spin: varies the content- war dept vs defense dept

construal level theory

a theory about the relationship between psychological distance and abstract or concrete thinking- psychologically distant actions and events are thought about in abstract terms; action and events that are close at hand are thought about in concrete terms

temporal framing

we think about action and events within a particular time perspective- think of far off events in abstract, close events in concrete terms- explains why sometimes we overcommit ourselves

confirmation bias

the tendency to test a proposition by searching for evidence that would support it

availability heuristic

the process whereby judgments of frequency or probability are based on how readily pertinent instances come to mind

Howdid researchers determine whether the availability heuristic is a result of ease of retrieval or theamount of information retrieved?

asked people to come up with 6 or 12 instances of assertiveness- ppl who had to think of 6 examples of their failure to be assertive rated themselves as less assertive than the people with 12: it is the ease of generating examples that seems to guide people's judgments (if struggle to come up with more, harder to do so think they are less like that)

representativeness heuristic

The representativeness heuristic is one heuristic that we use when making judgments. In this particular example, we estimate the likelihood of an event by comparing it to an existing prototype that already exists in our minds. Our prototype is what we think is the most relevant or typical example of a particular event or object.

how does base rate neglect relate to the representativeness heuristic?

base-rate info concerns knowledge about relative frequency. How many members of the category are there relative to the members of all other categories? the individual in questions is more likely to be gay if the local pop includes a lot of gays. but a strong sense of representativeness sometimes leads us to ignore base-rate likelihood.

planning fallacy

the tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a particular project, even when they are fully aware that they have often failed to complete similar projects in the time past- nearly all thoughts are about plans and scenarios for finishing the project but not with their track record on previous tasks

school outcomes article: study 1 with open-path vs closed-path

mind-set mattered: open path students predicted they would get better grades and had higher planned effort. no main effect of gender was found for aspired grades or planned effort. GenderXcondition, girls planned effort was significant for open path but not for boys

school outcomes: study 2- open path vs control

an open-path mind set improves planned effort when students are not already behind academically

Whatare the psychological effects/correlates of seeing yourself as “self-made”?

less generous and public spirited, make the lucky less likely to support the conditions that made their own success possible, like high-quality public education. people who reflect on their good fortune are more willing to contribute to the common good (donate to charity)

hindsight bias

the tendency to think that, after the fact, an event that was predictable even when it wasn't

results of the gratitude diary study

diaries with things that made you grateful, irritated or whatever. grateful ones had less severe aches and pains, better sleep, greater happiness/alertness, more outgoing and compassionate, less likely to feel lonely and isolated, reduced anxiety and diminished aggressive impulses

4 core processes of social cognition and how they relate to impression formation

1.) attention- what you pay attention to changes your impression

2.) interpretation- everyone thinks that the media is biased against them. even if they are looking at the same thing

3.) social comparison/judgment- influenced by the environment (think of rating attractiveness after 4 pretty vs 4 ugly faces)

4.) memory

gosling's dorm room research

friend rates on big 5 scale, stranger visits room

friends better at extraversion and agreeableness- stranger better at conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience

kahneman's response to blink approach to thinking/impression formation

quick only works when you are an expert because you have more information that helps you make a better impression

self fulfilling prophecies and when they are most likely to occur

predictions that directly or indirectly cause itself to become true by the very terms of the prophecy itself due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. more likely when there is a power differential and the target of expectations differs

how to overcome cognitive shortcuts and Hilda study

motivation- you have to want to. consider alternative possibilities- devil's advocate. need cognitive resources. Hilda- if not motivated, didn't matter if they were busy remembering the number. if they were motivated, they did worse when busy- not enough to be motivated, need to be able to think/access cognitive resources

classical conditioning and attitudes

pairing- have to form an opinion on someone- hot room ppl liked him less.- attitudes not often rationally formed/can be created by pairing of unconscious stimuli

operant conditioning and attitudes

reinforcement- attitudes are not always formed by experience

what attitudes are heritable

strongest ones- better predict behavior, are more consistent/resistant to change bc commitment (more certain they are correct) and embeddedness

strong attitudes vs. weak attitudes and commitment and embeddedness

strong attitudes better predict behavior, are more consistent/resistant to change because commitment (more certain they are correct) and embeddedness- connected to other things you like/are loyal to so less likely to change. more likely to dislike ppl with opposing views

how knowledge (direct vs indirect) affects attitude-behavior consistency

direct- more consistent (if meet someone, will have stronger opinion of them)

indirect- ????

personal relevance and attitude-behavior consistency

more likely to match if relevant to you- drinking age example

accessibility and attitude-behavior consistency

ideas that are more accessible/relevant will come to mind more when you are deciding on your actions (recently listen to lecture on global warming, pay more attention shortly after)

cognitive dissonance

when attitudes and behavior don't line up

individual differences in preferences for consistency

extroverts care less, ppl open to experience care less, introverts care more, only ppl with high preference for consistency show foot-in-door effect

how to study cognitive dissonacne

monkey study- free-choice paradigm

effort justification

induced compliance- money for CTECs

two types of attributions

attributions- inferences about events/behavior

1.) internal (ability, attitude, mood, effort)

2.) external (other people, task, situation, luck)

self-serving bias- evidence for it and when is it likely

attribute success to self, failures to others- correlated with high self-esteem, maintain high opinion of self BUT see it more when explaining to someone else, self-presentation feature

actor/observer bias

actors attribute behavior to situation (external), observers attribute behavior to internal (late to class bc long walk vs. not punctual)

correspondence bias

assume behavior corresponds with disposition

- make fast, easy dispositional inferences even when behavior is highly constrained by the situation (student assigned to opinion but still think it is their opinion)

fundamental attribution error and why it is so likely

is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent (character or intention), rather than external factors, in explaining another person's behavior in a given situation (think yourself vs. Kim K class example). it is likely because situational factors are hard to see (see cheating and not that they were sick for 2 weeks), we are cognitive misers- brain takes shortcuts, language- we have more ways to talk about personality than situation, and we are often correct

chronic dispositionalism and why it is so easy when explaining the extreme or troublesome behaviors of others

happens most when explaining extreme or troublesome behaviors- easier to attribute to their disposition. when see bad, attribute responsibility to damaged "others", blaming others for bad acts absolves us from considering situational influences- instead of changing policy, say bad person

bad apples or sour pickles metaphor and how applies to Columbine

instead of targeting the few bad apples, we should target the condition- vinegar. instead of trying to understand what was wrong with them and identify the bad guys, we should look at the broader causal networks and try to fix them (bullying at the school)

Describe Peterson and Seligman’s research on explanatory style. Whattype of explanatory style seems to be problematic? What types of life outcomes does this stylepredict?

They looked to see if explanatory style (stable/unstable,internal/external and global/specific) aligned correlated with life factors. Internal/stable/globalcauses is considered pessimistic- andis related to a variety of undesirable life outcomes such as lower grades thanoptimists. The optimistic tendency to make external, unstable and specificattributions had longer and healthier lives.

gender differences in attributional style

boys are more likely to attribute failures to lack of effort and girls are more likely to attribute failures to lack of ability

covariation principle

the idea that behavior should be attributed to potential causes that occur along with the observed behavior

consensus & the covariation principle

consensus refers to what most people would do in a given situation. Does everyone behave the same way in that situation or just a few? is you friend one of a few who likes her stats class or do most like it? all else being equal, the more an individual's reaction is shared by others (when consensus is high), the less it says about that individual and the more it says about the situation.

distinctiveness & the covariation principle

distinctiveness refers to what an individual does in different situations. Is a particular behavior unique to a specific situation, or does it occur in many situations? Does your friend seem to like all math classes or just the stats class? the more someone's reaction is confined to a particular situation (when distinctiveness is high), the less it says about that individual and the more it says about the specific situation.

consistency and the covariation principle

consistency refers to what an individual does in a given situation on different occasions. is the behavior the same now as in the past, or does it vary? does your friend have favorable things to say about today's class only, or has she raved about the course all semester? the more an individual's reaction varies across occasions (when consistency is low), the harder it is to make a definite attribution either to the person or to the situation. the effect is likely due to some less predictable combination of circumstances.

discounting principle

the idea that people should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if other plausible causes might have produced it

augmentation principle

the idea that people should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if other causes are present that normally would produce a different outcome- stick to story despite torture

counterfactual thoughts

thoughts of what might have, could have, or should have happened if only something had occurred differently

emotional amplification

an increase in the emotional reaction to an evert that is proportional to how easy it is to imgine the event not happening- switch plane/medal examples

just world hypothesis and how relates to attribution theory

the belief that people get what they deserve in life- victims of rape are often viewed as responsible for their rape

evidence that the FAE error varies across cultures

more widespread and pronounced for Westerners than Easterners

evidence for self-serving bias

think of the sports examples, explaining how fair an exam is based off of how you did, teacher takes credit if student does well and blames student if not

types of unconscious processing

ideomotor effects: when you are talking to someone, they will mirror your body movements

effects on judgments- when ppl surrounded by green, less violent than when surrounded by red

how do members of individualistic societies think about themselves and others?

conception of self as distinct from others, with attributes that are constant; insistence on ability to act on one's own; need for individual distinctiveness; preference for egalitarianism and achieve status based on accomplishments' conviction that rules governing behavior should apply to everyone

how do members of interdependent societies think about themselves and others?

conception of the self as inextricably linked to others, with attributes depending on the situation; preference for collective action; desire for harmonious relations within group; acceptance of hierarchy and ascribed status based on age, group membership and other attributes; preference for rules that take context and particular relationships into account

what does it take to make a study a true experiment?

an independent and dependent variable and random selection/assignment, control condition