Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Phylum that is a deuterostome?
Phylym Echinodermata
What are the general characteristics of the Phylum Echinodermata?
Spiny skin
Pentamerous radial symmetry
Water vascular system w/ tube feet (podia)
Radial symmetry (usually)
What are classes of the Phylum Echinodermata?
Class Asteroidea
Class Crinoidea
Class Holothuroidea
Class Ophiuroidea
Class Echinoidea
What are characteristics of the Class Crinoidea?
Organisms: Sea Lilies & Feather Stars
Paleozoic era
What are characteristics of the Class Asteroidea?
Organism: Sea Stars
Five arms (usually)
What are characteristics of the Class Ophiuroidea?
Organism: Brittle stars, Basket stars
Five arms (usually)
Capture food w/ baskets and created currents
What are characteristics of the Class Echinoidea?
Regular echinoids
Irregular echinoids
What organisms are considered Regular echinoids?
Sea Urchins
What organisms are considered Irregular echnoids?
Sand Dollars
Heart Urchins
Sea Bisquits
What are the characteristics of the Class Holothuroidea?
Organism: Sea Cucumber
Cylinderical w/ tertiary bilateral symmetry
Digestive tract into 2 main branches
What animal lives behind Sea Cucumber?
Pearl fish
What are characteristics of the Phylum Chaetognatha?
Marine, planktonic predator
Very small!
Very fast for plankton because of shape “bow & arrow”
Cetae-like structure to grab prey
What does gnatha mean?
What does agnathan mean?
What organisms are in the Phylum Chaetognatha?
Arrow Worms
What are the characteristics of the Phylum Hemichordata?
Burrowing, marine worms
Gill slits present
No notochord
What are the characteristics of the Phylum Chordata?
Notochord (at some time in lifetime), nerve chord, postanal tail, pharyngeal slits
Nerve system derived from Ectoderm
Flexible rod used for support
Pharyngeal slits
Used for gills and filter-feeding
What are the Nonvertebrate Chordates?
Subphylum Urochordata
Subphylum Cephalochordata
What are characteristics of the Subphylum Urochordata?
Organisms: Tunicates, Sea squirts, Larvaceans
Tadpole larva
What are characteristics of the Subphylum Cephalochordata?
Organisms: Lancelet
Lancelets found in tail and head
Humans have postanal tail and pharyngeal slits
We have them because we’re related to the things that use them
What is the Vertebrate Chordata?
Subphylum Vertebrata
What are characteristics of the Subphylum Vertebrata?
Vertebral column
Bone or cartilage
Well-developed brain
Two pairs of limbs
What are the Classes of the Subphylum Vertebrata?
Class Placodermi
Class Agnatha
Class Chondricthyes
Class Osteichthyes
What are characteristics of the Class Agnatha?
Jawless fish
Ostracoderms (Extinct)
Lamprey and Hagfishes
Notochord present through entire life
2 chambered heart
Evolution of jaw
Hyoid (gill) arch à jaw
Circular mouth, but no hinged jaw
Cartilaginous skeleton
When is an organism biologically an adult?
When it can reproduce
Somatic sped up, relative to germinal
5 yr. old can get pregnant
Germinal sped up, relative to somatic
First vertebrate
Fossil link to vertebrates
What are characteristics of the Class Placodermi?
All extinct
The first jawed fish
What are the characteristics of the Class Chondricthyes?
Organisms: Sharks & Rays
Cartilaginous skeleton
Notochord present
Sub-terminal mouth
2 chambered heart
No gill cover (operculum)…except in rattlefish
No swim bladder
What are the characteristics of Sharks?
Shark attacks
Shark teeth: abundant fossils
Placoid scales: hooked, teeth fall out
Electric skate/ray
Manta ray
Ratfish (Chimaera) w/operculum
Gill cover
What are characteristics of the Class Osteichthyes?
Notochord may exist
Terminal mouth
2 chambered heart
Swim bladder
What is the nickname for organism in the Class Osteichthyes?
Bony Fish
What are the Subclasses of the Class Osteichthyes?
Subclass Sarcopterygii
Subclass Actinopterygii
What is the nickname of the Subclass Sarcopterygii?
Lobe-finned Fishes
What are the Orders of the Subclass Sacropterygii?
Order Crossopterygii
Order Dipneusti
What are the characteristics of the Order Crossopterygii?
Crossing over species from aquatic to land
What is the nickname of the Order Crossopterygii?
What are the characteristics of the Order Dipneusti?
Lower metabolic rate (like Hybernation)
What is the nickname for the Order Dipneusti?
What are the characteristics of the Subclass Actinopterygii?
Sturgeon & Gar
Ganoid scales
What is the nickname for the Subclass Actinopterygii?
Ray-finned Fishes – bony spikes in fin
What are the primitive groups of Actinopterygii?
Sturgeon & Gar (ex. Alligator Gar)
Ganoid scales – really thick, found in Gar
Highest species diversity
The most advanced fish
Cycloid & Ctenoid scales
Caudal fin
What are the types of Caudal fins?
Heteroceral: shark
Homoceral: homocercal
Diphyceral: perch
What is the evolutionary link between fishes and amphibians?
Fish w/ legs
Lays down on side and eye migrates to the other side during metamorphisis
Leafy Sea Dragon
Mimicry, looks like sea horse plant
Large eyes, large teeth
Live in deep water and need to be able to see
Groper fish
80% mouth, largest mouth to body ratio
2 types of Dolphin
The Fish: Mahi Mahi
The Mammal
Circular scales
Ctenoid scales
Toothlike structured scale
What creature has movement similar to fish?