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45 Cards in this Set

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Biology

Is the study of life

Zoology

Is the study of animals

Evolution

Change in genetic makup of population over time

Ecology

Is the study of relationships between organisms and environment

Ichthyology

Is the study of fish

Hepatology

Is the study of reptiles and amphibians

Mammalogy

Is the study of mammals

Binomial nomenclature

Genus and species name for every living organism

Animal classification

Who developed the current classification scheme?

Karl von Linne (Linnaeus)

What are the 8 animal classification?

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

Cells

Are the basic unit of life

Prokaryotic cells

Small, simple (bacteria and archaea)

Non-membrane

Eukaryotic cells

Larger, more complex (plants, animals, protists, and fungi)

Membrane

Asexual reproduction

Produces a new organism without union of gametes (sperm and eggs)

Sexual reproduction

Combines genes from two parents

External fertilization

Broadcast spawning

Internal fertilization

Requires reproductive structures to transfer sperm

What is the differences between asexual and sexual repro? (Advantages /Disadvantages)

Asexual advantages- no genetic variation, many offspring, one parent.


Asexual disadvantages- lack of veriation, must rely on mutation.



Sexual advantages- diversity, no mutations.


Sexual disadvantages- 2 parents, not exact copy, not all gametes are used

What are the 4 basic methods of asexual reproduction?

1) Fission- division of cell into 2 parts. Common in protozoa (single cell)


2) Budding- cells grow and brake off parents. May remained attached, forming colony


3) Fragmentation- lost body part regenerates into new organism


4) Parthenogenesis- reproduce without sperm (bees,wasp,ants)

Hermaphroditism

Has both male and female reproductive system

Sexual repo

Sequential hermaphroditism

Starts as one sex then switches.


Protogynous- female then male


Protandrous- male then female

Sexual repro

Viviparous

Gives live birth

Repro

Oviparous

Lay eggs

Repro

Ovoviviparous

Form eggs that hatch inside female

Repro

Monotremes

Mammals that lay eggs

Embryology

Study of animal development from fertilized egg to formation of major organ system

Fertilization

Fusion of sperm and egg (zygote)

Primary germ layers

Embryonic cells occur in layers or blocks. These evenually differentiate into tissues and/or organs

Ectoderm

Outer body wall

Cell

Endoderm

Inner lining of digestive cavity

Cell

Mesoderm

Tissue in between

Cell

Cleavage

Division of the egg

Cell

Blastula

Embryo becomes hollow sphere

Cell

Gastrula

Cells migrate inward (blastopore)

Cell

Organic evolution

Descent with modification. Population changes over time

Adaptaion

Any trait that makes survival and repro more likely

Analogous structure

Are similar to each other due to convergent evolution

Sugar glider vs flying squirrel

Homologous structure

Are similar to each other due to common ancestry (same species)

Evolution

Hardy-Weinberg therom describes a population that is not evolving must have?

Large size, no migration, no mutations, random mating,no natural selection

Why speciation requires reproductive isolation?

1)Allopatric speciation- barriers split species into 3 diff groups


2)Parapatric speciation- no barriers but groups seperat by species


3)Sympatric speciation- no barriers but only mate with same type

Fish lake example (3 types)

3 types of natural selection

1)Directional selection - small-big


2)Disruptive selection -big/small


3)Stabilizing selection - mid

2 types of protist

1)Plant-like photosynthesis, algae,ect.


2)Animal-like consumers

4 Different types of locomotion?

1)Flagellates- has tail


2)Ciliates- short hair-like flagella


3)Amoeba- blob (oozes)


4)Apicomplexans- stationary protozoa

4 groups of protozoas

Excavata, Amoebozoa, Rhizaria, and Chromalveolata

E,A,R,C

What is a red tide? Super group chromalveolata

A bloom that reproduces at a fast rate that release toxin