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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the first stage of sepsis?
SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)
A patient with SIRS will have at least two of these signs:
Core temp < 96.8 or > 100.4
Heart rate over 90 bpm
Respiratory rate greater than 20
WBC count <4000 />12000 cells/mm3 OR > 10% immature neutrophils
Define severe sepsis:
Sepsis + evidence of end-organ dysfunction as a result of hypoperfusion
What are the signs of organ dysfunction?
lactic acidosis
acute change in mental status
Define Septic Shock:
SEVERE SEPSIS + persistent HYPOTENSION despite fluid resuscitation and acute CIRCULATORY FAILURE resulting in tissue hypoperfusion.
Who is at greater risk of developing sepsis?
Age > 65 or <1
those with chronic illness
those who take immunosuppressant agents,
those with infection due to surgery or invasive procedures.
List the common complications of septic shock:
myocardial dysfunction
acute renal failure/chronic renal dysfunction
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
liver failure
longterm neurological complications d/t tissue hypoperfusion
Name two early signs of sepsis
Tachycardia and narrow pulse pressure
Why do people over the age of 65 have an increased risk of infection? (6)
1. impaired immunity
2. decreased mobility
3. skin breakdown
4. dementia
5. decreased gag and cough reflex
6. poor bladder emptying
Define sepsis:
The presence of SIRS accompanying an infection
WBC count > 12,000 cells/mm3
WBC count < 4,000 cells/mm3
What two findings are almost universal with patients in sepsis
Tachycardia and hypotension
Characteristics of "warm sepsis"
Pt. has had fluid resuscitation,
Tachycardia and hypotension are results of high CO and low peripheral vascular resistance.
Causes of "cold sepsis"
Pt. hasn't had medical care or hasn't had adequate fluid resuscitation resulting in low CO and high peripheral resistance.
Assessment findings of cold sepsis:
Cold extremities, diaphoretic, weak, thready pulses. Will need urgent resuscitation.
As tissue hypoperfusion increases, what also increases and why?
Respiratory rate will increase to compensate for metabolic acidosis.
What are signs of poor tissue perfusion?
pallor, mottling, delayed capillary bed refill
Signs of DIC:
petechiae and purpura
What is the action of a vasopressor?
it stimulates contraction of the muscle in the capillary/arterial wall causing a rise in blood pressure.
What is the ideal time frame for treating sepsis?
Within one hour of presenting sx
How can you calculate Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
DP + 1/3PP
DP = Diastolic pressure
PP = Pulse pressure