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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are reticulocytes?
immature RBCs newly produced by bone marrow and released into blood

total # indicates effectiveness of RBC production
What can reticulocytes tell you about anemias?
anemia with high retic count means it's likely hemolytic anemia

low retic count means inadequate marrow production (ineffective erythropoeisis)
What are the microcytic anemias? How are they linked?
- iron deficiency anemia
- anemia of chronic disease
- alpha thalassemia
- beta thalassemia
- lead poisoning

all have a defect in hemoglobin synthesis
How does lead poisoning affect hemoglobin synthesis?
inhibits 2 key enzymes in heme synthesis: alanine dehyrdratase and ferrochelatase
Name 2 macrocytic anemias.
vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency
Give examples of intravascular hemolysis.
RBC's are lysed within blood vessels

- complement in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
- mechanical prosthetic valves
- microangiopathic hemolytic anemias causing mechanical fragmentation of RBCs (like DIC)
- thrombotic thrombocytic purpura
Give examples of extravascular hemolysis.
splenic macrophages or Kuppfer cells in the liver destroy RBCs

(eg. hereditary spherocytosis, hypersplenism)
What happens to the hemoglobin in extravascular hemolysis?
hemoglobin in phagocytosed RBC is metabolized to bilirubin in the cell, reducing amount of hemoglobin in the blood or urine

(hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria)
What is haptoglobin?
serum protein that binds free hemoglobin; binds much more hemoglobin in intravasuclar hemolysis
Is there jaundice in extravascular hemolysis?
What is usual cause of anemia in end stage renal failure? What is DOC?
lowered EPO production

also: uremia from renal failure can make the bone marrow less responsive to EPO

exogenously administered EPO
p. 152
start with case 1