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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does it mean when scientists classify things?
Scientists put things in categories.
have to do with descriptions that cannot be expressed I numbers (color, taste, etc)
have to do with numbers or amounts
Half Life
The time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to decay.
Relative age
The age of a rock compared to the ages of other rocks. The deeper the rock, the older it is.
Know the SI unit of time
Cinder Cone
cone-shaped with high silica content and layers of cinders
Composite volcanoes
tall cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layer of ash
Shield Volcanoes
thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers.
Lava plateaus
when thin, runny lava floods the area and travels far before cooling and solidifying.
Remember that scientific knowledge can change as a result of…
new information.
Mid-ocean ridges
mountain ranges that run across the middle of some ocean floors.
How do mid-ocean ridges form?
They form at crack in the ocean floor where molten material rises from the earth.
Divergent boundaries
Where two plates move slowly away from each other
Convergent boundaries
two plates move toward each other
Transform boundaries
two plates move past each other in opposite directions
What are the parts of the scientific method?
Purpose, research, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, conclusion
Be able to convert between meters and kilometers
King Henry Died (Unit) Drinking Chocolate Milk
How are intrusions used in relative age dating?
When magma pushes into rock below the surface, cools, and hardens leaving an igneous rock behind that is younger.
What is the law of superposition?
The deeper the layer of rock, the older it is.
What do line graphs show?
How two variables interact with one another
How do volcanoes erupt?
The force of the expanding gases pushes magma from the magma chamber through the pipe until it flows or explodes out of the vent.
What is sonar?
A devise that uses sound waves to measure the distance to an object.
under ground
above ground
What is a rift valley?
A deep valley that forms where two continental plates move apart.
What are the layers of the earth?
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Where are you most likely to find volcanoes?
Plate boundaries
How do you measure volume?
Length times width times height
What is the main hazard from a quiet volcanic eruption?
Poisonous Gasses
the transfer of energy carried in rays (like sunlight)
heat transfer between materials that are touching (like hot sand)
Heat that is transferred by the movement of a fluid.
What is a caldera?
The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano’s magma chamber collapses
thin, runny, fast moving lava. Looks like rope when it dries.
Volcanic cinders
pebble-sized particles of volcanic material
the smallest (dust sized) particles of volcanic material
larger pieces of volcano particles that can be from the size of a golf ball to the size of a car.
What is Pangaea?
The single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago and later became today’s continents.
What is the texture of a rock?
The feeling of a rock that depends on its mineral crystals.
How does convection work?
Hot temperatures rise and as they cool, they fall to get heated up again over and over.
the preserved remains or traces of living things.
a hollow area in the shape of an organism.
a solid copy of the shape of an organism.
Petrified fossils
fossils in which minerals replace all of an organism and they turn into stone.
Carbon films
extremely thin coating of carbon on a rock.
Trace fossil
evidence of the activities of ancient organisms.
Preserved remains
when whole organisms are preserved, for example in ice or tar.
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock and other substances.
Sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Why do scientists think plates move?
Convection currents in the mantle are why plates move
How do deep ocean trenches form?
Subduction in a convergent boundary
Which span of time in the geologic history of earth is the longest?
deals with descriptions that cannot be expressed in numbers
deals with numbers, or amounts
metric system
a system of measurement based on the number 10
the horizontal axis
the vertical axis
a possible explanation for a set of observation or answer to a scientific question; must be testable
Controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
Dependent variable
the factor that changes as a result of changes to the manipulated, or independent, variable in an experiment; also called the responding variable.
Independent variable
the one factor that a scientist changes during an experiment; also called the manipulated variable
evidence gathered though observation
an attempt to repeat a scientist's experiment by a different scientist or group of scientists
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
mostly made of iron and nickel, a dense liquid outer core and a dense, solid inner core
the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a fluid
the transfer of thermal energy from one particle of matter to another
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
to look over the concept
to look over; intense review, go over something a lot and understanding it
the particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock its texture
the look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grains
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms form the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
metamorphic rock
a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
rock cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock and other substances
lab safety
to follow procedure in the lab to not hurt yourself during the experiment
extrusive rock
igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface
intrusive rock
a type of rock that form from cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
control group
the group in the experiment not tested on
testing group
group the experiment is being tested on
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
the process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass
the reason you are doing the experiment
the sources of information you find
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
a type of fossil that is a hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism
carbon film
a type of fossil consisting of an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock
a scientist who studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived long ago
Change over time; the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
fossil record
that millions of types of organisms have evolved
to refer to a group of related organisms that has died out and has no living member
relative age
a rock is its age comparedto ages of others
absolute age
the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed
law of superposition
the geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock
an igneous rock layer formed when lava flows onto Earth's surface and hardens.
an igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move
gap in geologic record
index fossil
fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during a geologically short period
forces inside Earth fold rock layers so much, that the layers are turned completely
an organism that existed for a geologically short period of time
radioactive decay
the process in which radioactive elements break down, releasing fast- moving particles and energy
the time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to decay
one of the three long units of geologic time between the Precambrian and the present
guide scientists use when they make inferences about Earth's past
continental drift
continents slowly moved over Earth's surface
a supercontinent that was once joined together in a single landform
Wenger's hypothesis
the continents fit all together as one
sea floor speading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
mid- ocean ridge
a undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced: a divergent plate boundary under the ocean
the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep- ocean trench and back into the mantle
dep ocean trench
ocean floor that plunges into deep underwater canyons
when people dress up and go trick-or-treating on october 31
sweet things that has a lot of sugar
continents once formed together
a large piece of matter that is land
a device that uses sound waves to measure the distance of an object
mariana trench
a trench in the Pacific ocean and the deepest part of the ocean
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continential and oceanic crust
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convetion currents in the mantle
convergent boundaries
a plate boundary where two plates move towards each other
divergent boundaries
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
transform boundaries
a plate boundaries where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
breaks in Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
ring of fire
one major belt of volcanoes
Mountain forms when magma reaches the surface
hot spot
an area where material from deep within Earth's mantle rises through the crust and melts to form magma
island arc
a string of volcanoes that form as a result of subduction of one oceanic plate beneath a second oceanic plate
magma chamber
the pockets beneath a volcano where magma is collected
A long tube through which magma moves from a magma chamber to the Earth's surface
molten rock and gas leave through an opening
lava flow
the spread of lava as it pours out of a vent
a bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening
a material found in magma that is formed from the elements
not currently active but able to become active in the future
a volcano that no longer is active and unlikely to erupt again
volcanic neck
magma hardens in a volcanos pipe and the rock wears away.
magma that squeezes between horizontal rock layers harden