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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What processes wear down and build up Earths surface?
weathering, erosion, and deposition.
What causes the different typesof mass movement?
landslides, mudflows, slump and creep.
What is the mian difference between slump and a landslide?
The material in slump moves down in one big chunk.Lands slides the material comesdown in smal pieces.
What process is mainly responsiblefor shaping the surface of the land?
What featues are formed by water erosion and deposition?
valleys, water falls, flood plains, manders, and oxbow lakes.
How does an oxbow lake form?
when a river floods. During the flood high water finds a straighter routendownstream. As the flood waters fall sediments dam up the ends of a meander.
What types of landforms do deposition make?
alluvial fans and deltas.
How can floods be beneficial?
it can create new fertile soil.
What causes ground water erosion?
Chemical weathering; when water sinks into the ground kit combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid, called carbonic acid. Carbonic acid can break down limestone.
What enables water to do work?
As gravvity pulls water down a slope, the waters potential energy changes to kenetic energy that can do work.
How dos sediment enter rivers and streams?
Most sediment washes or falls into rivers as a result of mass movement and runoff. Other sediment erodes from the bottom or sides of the river.
What factors affect a rivers ability to erode and carry sediment?
a rivers slope, volume of flow, and the shape of its streambed all affect how fast the river flows and how much sediment can erode.
What causes the sediment in a river to flow downstream?
Gravity and force pushes it downstream.
How does a rivers slope affect its speed?
When the slope increases the water speed increases and vise versa.
What are two kinds of glaciers?
continental: large types (cover a whole continent or large sland)
valley:small types
How does a valley glacier form and move?
Glaciers can form only in an area where more snow falls than melts. Once the depth of snow and ice reaches more than 30 to 40 meters, gravity begins to pull the glacier downhill.
How do glaciers cause erosion and deposition?
When a glacier melts, it deposits the sediment it eroded from the land, creating various landforms.
a large mass of ice that moves slowly over land.
Continental glaier
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island.
How much percent is continental glaciers to Earths land?
10 %
Ice ages
Times in the past when continental glaciers covered a whole continent.
Valley Glacier
a long narrow, glacier that forms when snow and ice build up high in a mountain valley.
On what type of landform are valley glaciers found?
High in mountain valleys.
What is the rate of speed that valley glaciers move a day?
a few centimeters to a few meters a day.
What are 2 processes by which glaciers erode the land?
plucking and abrasion.
as a glacier flows over the land, it picks up rocks in this process.
the mixture of sediments that a glacier deposits directly on the surface.

-clay,sand,silt, gravel, and boulders can be found in till.
the till deposited at the edges of a glacier forms this ridge.
a small depression that forms when a chunk of ice is left in glacier till.
What is a terminal moraine?
the ridge of till at the farthest point reached by a glacier.
What gives waves their energy?
The energy in waves comes from wind that blowss across the water's surface.
How do waves erode a coast?
Waves shape the coast through erosion by breaking down rock and transporting sand and other sediment.
What features result from deposition by waves?
Waves shape a coast when they deposit sediment, forming coastal features such as beaches, spits, and barrier beaches.
What is a big reason waves can erode land?
Waves have force which when the waves come down on the rocks constantly they end up breaking into sediment.
How can waves preform abrasion?
They can pick up sand and throw them on the otherside of a beach.
a part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean.
Over long period of time, what effect do waves have on a steep, rocky coast?
They can make a sea cave.
an area of wave-washed sediment along a coast.
longshore drift
as waves repeatedly hit the beach, some of the beach sediment moves down the beach with a current.
a beach that projects like a finger out into the water.
How does wind cause erosion?
by deflation and abrasion.
What features result from deposition by wind?
Wind erosion and deposition may form sand dunes and loess deposits.
sand dune
a deposit of wind-blown sand.
the process by which wind removes surface material.
Where would you be most likely to see evidence of wind erosion?
most desert landforms are the result of weathering and water erosion.
What happens when wind strike an obstacle?
it froms a sand dune.
fine, wind deposited sediment.