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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is photosynthesis?
The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
How do living things obtain energy?
Either directly or indirectly from the energy of sunlight captured during photosynthesis.
How does grass obtain energy?
Grass obtains energy directly fron sunlight because it makes its own food during photosynthesis.
How does a zebra obtain energy?
A zebra obtains energy indirectly by eating the grass. Energy has beeen stored in the grass.
What is autotroph?
An organisim that makes its own food.

Plants make their own food through the process of photosynthesis.
What is heterotroph?
An organism that cannnot make its own food.

Animals (zebra) cannot make its own food.
Fungi absorb their food from other organisms.
How do autotrophs get their food?
They make their own food using sunlight and photosynthesis.
How does the sun supply heterotrophs with energy?
Heterotrophs get energy by eating plants or other animals that eat plants.
Plants gether theri energy from sunlight, so heterotrophs get their energy from sunlight indirectly.
Where are houseplants usually placed?
Near a window or under plant lights.
What happens if a houseplant doesn't get enough light?
They lose their leaves, turn yellow and may die.
Why do plants need light?
Plants use light energy to make food.
What happens during photosynthesis?
There are two stages:
--capturing the sun's energy;
--producing sugars.
What is the energy captured in the first stage used for?
To produce sugars in the second stage.
What pigment in chloroplasts absorbs light?
Both chlorophyll and solar cells absorb light energy and use it to power a process.
What happens in the second stage of photosynthesis?
Water and carbon dioxide combine chemically to form sugars, and oxygen is released.
How is chlorophyll like a solar cell?
Both chlorophyll and solar cells absorb light energy and use it to power a process.
How are roots and stomata important for photosynthesis?
Roots take up water, and stomata take in carbon dioxide, both of which are needed for photosynthesis.
What role do you think the guard cells play?
They regulate what enters the stomata.
When do you think the stomata are usually open?
During the day when light energy is available for photosynthesis.
What make plants green?
Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
What happens during photosynthesis?
Plants and some other organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars.
Photosynthesis takes place in how many stages? What is the first stage?
Two stages.
Capturing the sun's energy.
In plants, this energy-capturing process occurs mostly in its leaves.
How does the green color in plants occur?
The green color comes from pigments, colored chemical compounds that absorb light.The main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts is chlorophyll.
How does chlorophyll in plants functions?
Similar to the solar "cells" in a solar powered calculator.
Chlorophyll captures light energy and uses it to power the second stage of photosynthesis.
What is the second stage in photosynthesis?
Using energy to make food.
The cell uses the captured energy to produce sugars.
The cell needs two raw material for this stage: water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
How does the second stage work?
In plants, the roots absorb water from the soil
Water moves up through the plant's stem to the leaves.
Carbon dioxide is one of the gases in the air and it enters the plant through the stomata.
What is the stomata?
Small openings on the undersides of leaves
What is the photosynthesis equation?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O yields C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 or
carbon dioxide + water (light energy) yields a sugar + oxygen
Explain the photosynthesis equation.
raw materials are: six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water yield one molecule of a sugar and six molecules of oxygen.
What does the arrow mean in the photosynthesis equation?
Yields or connects the raw materials to the produce. Light energy or the chemical reaction is written above the arrow.
What is respiration?
It is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.

During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
Do plant cells and animals cells respire?
Yes, all living things need a continuous supply of energy, the cells of all living things carry out respiration continuously.
Some students may think that soil provides plants with food. It this true or false.
This is only partially true. The soil provides one of the raw materials for plants to make food--water. However, plants produce their own food from water plus carbon dioxide and the energy from sunlight; plants do not tkae in food.
Vigorous exercise, such as hiking or basketball requires a lot energy.
Where does the energy come from?
Food can provide your body with energy.
What does a fire need to burn?
Fuel and oxygen
What is released when fuel is burned?
Energy in the form of heat and light. A similar chemical process, called respiration, "burns" food molecules in cells. Like combustion, respiration uses fuel and oxygen to produce energy. The fuel comes from food, and the energy is used for cellular functions.
What is respiration?
The process that releases energy from food.
Why is respiration important to cells?
It provides cells with the energy they need to carry out their functions.
What happens in the first stage of respiration?
Glucose is broken down into smaller molecules and a small amount of energy released.
What happens in the second stage of respiration?
The smaller molecules are broken down into even samller molecules and a large amount of energy is released.
Why do you think that musecle cells have many mitochondria?
The second stage of respiration, which produces lots of energy, takes place in the mitochondria. The supply a great amount of energy for movement.
What is respiration?
Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.
What happens during respiration?
During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
Explain respiration.
Because lliving things need a continuous supply of energy, the cells of all living things carry out respiration continuously.
Do plant cells and animal cells respire?
What is the respiration equation?
C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 +
sugar oxygen carbon dioxide

6 H2O + energy
Where is energy stored and how is it released?
It is like a savings account. Energy stored in cell is something like money you put in a saving saccount in a bank. When you want to buy something, you withdraw someof the money.
How do cells use energy?
Cells store and use energy in a similar way. During photosynthesis, plants capture the energy from sunlight and "save" it in teh form of carbohydrates, including sugars and starches.
How are means like a savings account?
When you eat a meal, you add to your body's energy savings account. When cells need energy, they
"withdraws" it by breaking down the carbohydrates in the process of respiration.
Respiration has two meanings. One is connected with the lungs.
You have probably used it to mean "breathing," moving air in and out of your lungs. The respiration that takes place inside the cell is different.
The other meaning of respiraiton is connected with the cells.
The respiration process that takes place inside cells is sometimes called cellular respiration.
What are the two stages of respiration? What is the first stage?
The first stage takes place in the cytoplasm of the organism's cells. Molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules. Oxgyen is not
What is the second stage of respiration?
The second stage of respiration takes place in the mitochondria. There, the small molecules are broken down into even smaller molecules.These chemical reactions require oxygen, and they release a great deal of energy. This is why themitochondria are sometimes called the "powerhouses" of the cell.
See figure 7. Trace the steps in the breakdown of glucose.
Energy is released is both stages.