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61 Cards in this Set

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Reform movement that looked to local, state, and national government to resolve problems

Robert La Follette

An American Republican Politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin from 1906 to 1925

Types of Progressive Reform


Social Justice

Lessen social and economic justice - right the sufferings brought on by industrialization.

Efficiency and Expertise

Progressives want to learn from big business and use some of their method to create a more efficient society

Social Control

Some Progressives want other Americans to conform to their moral values, so private conscience issues are put on the political agenda


Name given to US journalists and other writers who exposed corruption in politics and business in the early 20th century. The term was first used by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.

Ida Tarbell/ The History of Standard Oil

Ida Tarbell was an American teacher, author and journalist. She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of he progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.

Lincoln Steffens/ The Shame of Cities

Lincoln Steffens was a New York reporter who launched a series of articles in McClure's that would later be published together in a book titled The Shame of the Cities.

Lewis Hines

Lewis Hines was an American sociologist and photographer. Hines used his camera as a tool for social reform. His photographs were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the United States

Jacob Riis/ How the Other Half Lives

How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York and was an early publication of photojournalism by Jacob Riis.

Upton Sinclair/ The Jungle

The Jungle is a novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair. Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities.

Pure Food and Drug Act

An Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of bad food, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.


Prohibition is the act of prohibiting the manufacturing, storage in barrels, bottles, transportation and sale of alcohol including alcoholic beverages.

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union(WCTU)

the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform with a program that linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far reaching reform strategies based on applied christianity

18th Amendment

The 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, or export of alcoholic beverages.

Progressive Political Reforms


Direct Primary

a primary in which members of a party nominate its candidates by direct vote.


the right of citizens outside the legislature to originate legislation.


a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for direct decision.


A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his or her term has ended.

Direct Election of Senators/ 17th Amendment

Direct Election of U.S. Senators. Americans did not directly vote for senators for the first 125 years of Federal Government. The Constitution, as it was adopted in 1788, stated that senators would be elected by state legislatures.

City Managers

A person not publicly elected but appointed by a city council to manage a city origin of city manager.

Women and Progressivism


Women's Clubs

Upper and middle class women joined these clubs. Many clubs started with cultural and social projects. Gave women a chance to exercise leadership.


Early leaders were Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Staton.

National Association Women Suffrage

Carrie Chapman Catt

Carrie Chapman Catt was an American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920.


National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), American organization created in 1890 by the merger of the two major rival women's right organizations- the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association- after 21 years of independent operation.

Alice Paul

Alice Paul was an American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote.

National Women's Party

The National Woman's Party (NWP) was an American women's organization formed in 1916 as an outgrowth of the congressional union,which in turn was formed in 1913 by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns to fight for women's suffrage, ignoring all other issues.

Nineteenth Amendment

The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. it was ratified on August 18, 1920.


Founded by Du Bois and others of the Niagara Movement

Sought equal political rights for blacks.

Progressive Presidents

Theodore Roosevelt

Nicknamed a "trustbuster" although Taft really broke up more trusts.

Changed the office of presidency by transforming it into a real position of leadership.

Northern Securities Company

Forced owners to negotiate with workers in 1902 Coal Strike - first time government tries to be fair in a labor strike.

Supporter of conservation efforts - established many national parks, friend of Sierra Club founder John Muir.

New Nationalism

New Nationalism was Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election.

William Howard Taft

Angered Roosevelt and Progressives by signing the high Payne-Aldrich Tariff and because he backed Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger in his dispute with Gifford Pinchot.

Woodrow Wilson

Former president of Princeton University and ran as a reform candidate for governor of New Jersey

New Freedom

New Freedom was a collection of speeches Woodrow Wilson made during his presidential campaign of 1912

Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913.

1912 Election

Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican nomination and when he failed to beat Taft, he runs on the Progressive Party ticket

Bully pulpit

A bully pulpit is a sufficiently conspicuous position that provides an opportunity to speak out and be listened to.

Chapter 10 Review



A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

Josiah Strong

Josiah Strong was an American Protestant clergyman, organizer, editor and author. He was a leader of the Social Gospel movement, calling for social justice and combating social evils.

Causes of War

Cuban Rebellion (1895) - Started by exiled Cuban journalist Jose Marti. The guerrilla resistance was destroying American-owned sugar mills and plantations. Purpose was twofold: break Spanish will to keep fighting and get the U.S. to join the war and help the rebels.

Yellow Journalism

sensational style of writing that exaggerated the news in order to entice and enrage readers. Hearst and Pulitzer were in a circulation war and used yellow journalism for Cuban Rebellion to raise American outrage and sympathy for Cuba.

De Lome Letter

The De Lome letter, a note written by Senor Don Enrique Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, to Done Jose Canelejas, the Foreign Minister of Spain, reveals de Lome's opinion about the Spanish involvement in Cuba and US President McKinley's diplomacy.

USS Maine

ship that was pride of U.S. navy exploded in Havana's harbor. U.S. newspapers charge Spain was responsible and Hearst offered $50,000 reward for capture of Spanish agents who were responsible

William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst was an American newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and whose methods profoundly influence American journalism

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian-born American newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post dispatch and the New York World. Pulitzer introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers he acquired in the 1880s

Battle of Manila Bay

Commander Dewey commanded U.S. fleet as they captured or destroyed every Spanish ship in Manila Bay.

Teddy Roosevelt and Rough Riders regiment

The regiment was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers"in honor of its first.

Treaty of Paris

U.S. and Spain sign an armistice (cease-fire) on August 1898. This ended "a splendid little war."

Platt Agreement

In 1903 the U.S. made the Cuban government ad d the Platt Amendment to its new constitution

Theodore Roosevelt's "Big Stick" Policy

believed in "speak softly and carry a big stick" - be prepared to back up your foreign policy with a strong military -especially a strong navy

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt added to the Monroe Doctrine by advising European nations that the U.S. would not allow any inference in Latin America - if they had a problem with a Latin American country the U.S. would mediate

Open Door Policy

a term in foreign affairs intially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 and dispatched to the major European powers

Panama Canal

Building the Panama Canal, 1903-1914, President Theodore Roosevelt oversaw the realization of a long-term United States goal - a trans-isthmian canal.

William Howard Taft's Dollar Diplomacy

Taft wanted dollar to replace bullets. if the U.S. government approved of a foreign nation's policies, it encouraged American businesses to invest in then country and guaranteed the loan

Woodrow Wilson's Missionary Diplomacy

Wilson argued American foreign policy should be based on supporting democracy and that the U.S. should not recognize any foreign government that was oppressive to its own people