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15 Cards in this Set

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Description of Fasciation

Description: Shoots or flower stems become enlarged and flattened, developing a ribbon-like, often slightly curled appearance.

Cause of Fasciation

Cause: May be caused by any one of a variety of causes, the most common being early injury to a growing point, such as by frost, insect, or mechanical injury. Viral or other infections may also be a cause.

Treatment for Fasciation

Treatment: Although odd in appearance, fasciation is harmless and does not affect the overall growth and development of the plant.


If undesired, prune out the affected areas.

Description of Iron deficiency/lime-induced chlorosis

Description: Iron deficiency/lime-induced chlorosis is typically seen in combination with Manganese deficiency. Symptoms include chlorotic leaves and browning of leaves beginning at the margins and then spreading between the leaf veins. Younger growth is typically more affected than older growth, as Iron is not very mobile within the plant.

Cause of Iron deficiency/lime-induced chlorosis

Cause: Calcifuge (acid-loving/lime-hating) plants have roots which are poorly adapted for the absorption of necessary trace elements from the soil. If conditions are too alkaline, they readily develop deficiencies, particularly of Manganese and Iron.

Treatment for Iron deficiency/lime-induced chlorosis

Treatment: Avoid growing calcifuge (acid loving/lime hating) plants in alkaline soils. Acidify soil with acidic mulches such as composted bracken or conifer bark. Apply Iron in chelated form (iron sequestrene)

Description of Blossom end rot

Description: A sunken patch develops at the blossom end (base) of developing fruits. The base of the fruit becomes tough, leathery, and darkens to brown or black as cells collapse. Not all fruits on a truss will necessarily be affected.


Tomatoes, particularly those grown in pots, and occasionally sweet peppers are affected.

Cause of Blossom end rot

Cause: Dry conditions around plant roots, which lead to insufficient calcium uptake. Low calcium content in fruit leads to cell collapse and discoloration. Also caused by very acidic growing media, which can lock up calcium.

Treatment for Blossom end rot

Treatment: Ensure an adequate, regular supply of moisture, particularly on fast-growing and heavy-cropping plants. In BER develops, pick off affected fruits and improve watering routine. Grow small-fruited tomatoes, which are rarely affected. Grow plants in open ground or in larger containers which are less prone to drying out.

Description of Oedema

Description: Raised, wart-like outgrowths develop, most frequently on lower leaf surfaces. Growths are initially the same colour as the leaf, but may become corky and brown later. Affected leaves may sometimes become distorted but do not always die.

Cause of Oedema

Cause: Plant takes up more water than it can transpire through the leaves. As a result, small groups of leaf cells swell up and become over-filled with water, producing pale green, warty growths. If growing conditions do not improve, the cells in the growth die off, and so become brown and corky. Oedema usually develops when humidity is high and water levels around roots are excessive.

Treatment for Oedema

Treatment: Do not remove leaves showing symptoms, as the disorder is not infectious and removal of leaves further reduces moisture loss, thus worsening the problem. Reduce watering and/or improve drainage. Increase air circulation between plants by spacing them further apart and increasing ventilation.

Description of Drought

Description: Symptoms vary depending upon the plant and on whether the drought is regular or occasional. Symptoms include poor growth/stunting and wilting of the foliage, sometimes spreading to other plant parts. Prolonged drought may cause poor flowering, bud drop, and small fruits. Prolonged drought followed by sudden watering or rainfall may cause splitting.

Cause of Drought

Cause: Inadequate rainfall/watering, or occasionally, the inability of a plant to take up sufficient moisture due to root damage. Very free-draining soils, such as those with a high sand content, are particularly prone to drying out. Plants with restricted roots, such as potted plants, are also particularly prone to drought.

Treatment for Drought

Treatment: Ensure that soil never dried out completely. Where feasible, grow plants in open ground, or protect containers from direct sunlight. Improve soil moisture retention by incorporating bulky organic materials. Apply a mulch to improve soil moisture retention and reduce water loss by evaporation. Irritate regularly. Plant hedges to shield soil/plants from wind.