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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the final stage of intrauterine lung development?
Alveolar stage (36 weeks to 8 years) – final stage of alveolar maturation
What are the histologic differences between bronchi and bronchioles?
Bronchi have cartilage and submucosal glands in their wall, while bronchioles lack these histologic features
What are the histologic differences between membranous (terminal) and respiratory bronchioles?
Membranous or terminal bronchioles have smooth muscle in their walls, while respiratory bronchioles are lined by alveoli
What are the functions of Type II pneumocytes?
a) produce surfactant, a phospholipid that reduces surface tension in alveoli facilitating alveolar expansion
b) main cell type involved in alveolar repair
What is the pulmonary acinus?
Pulmonary acinus is the functional unit for gas transfer. It is composed of the respiratory bronchiole + alveolar duct + alveoli
when does surfactant reach adequate levels?
2 weeks before birth
T or F. 95% of mature alveoli develop after birth.
T.
Pulmonary surfactant is produced by what cell type
a) Alveolar macrophages
b) Ciliated epithelial cells
c) Type II pneumocytes
d) Type I pneumocytes
e) Kulchitsky cells
C. Type II pneumocytes begins to develop during saccular phase (at 29 weeks)
which lung has three lobes? which has two?

which mainstem bronchi (left or right) is more vertical and thus more prone to aspirated objects?
right; left

right
lungs are covered by _____ pleura; thoracic wall covered by _____ pleura.
visceral; parietal
Define these surgical resections:

Pneumonectomy –
Lobectomy –
Segmentectomy -
Wedge –
Pneumonectomy – entire lung
Lobectomy – single lobe
Segmentectomy - bronchopulmonary segment
Wedge – less than a segment
tell me about type I pneumocytes
flat squamous cells of alveolus that cover about 95% of alveolar surface
tell me about alveolar macrophages
loosely attached to epithelial surface or free in alveolar space; phagocytic function (eats up carbon that is in the exchanged air)
when do pores of kohn develop?
after birth
differentiate b/w pores of kohn vs. lambert's canals
pores of kohn - connect adjacent alveoli to provide for collateral ventilation (13-21 per alveolus)

lambert's canal - direct communication between bronchiole and alveolar duct
characterized by flattened epithelial type I pneumocytes + cuboidal type II pneumocytes

a. bronchus
b. bronchiole
c. alveolus
C
Define these surgical resections:

Pneumonectomy –
Lobectomy –
Segmentectomy -
Wedge –
Pneumonectomy – entire lung
Lobectomy – single lobe
Segmentectomy - bronchopulmonary segment
Wedge – less than a segment
characterized by ciliated pseudostratified columnar, goblet cells, cartilage, submucosal glands

a. bronchus
b. bronchiole
c. alveolus
A
tell me about type I pneumocytes
flat squamous cells of alveolus that cover about 95% of alveolar surface
characterized by simple cuboidal, no goblet cells, no cartilage or submucosal glands
B
tell me about alveolar macrophages
loosely attached to epithelial surface or free in alveolar space; phagocytic function (eats up carbon that is in the exchanged air)
name the dual vascular supply of the lungs. include their main fxns.
pulmonary and bronchial

pulmonary = originate from right heart; fxn as main gas exchange; form capillary network around alveoli

bronchial = originate from aorta/intercostal arteries; supply nutrition to airways/lungs
when do pores of kohn develop?
after birth
what are the locations of superficial vs. deep lymphatics of the lung?
superficial lymphatic drainage present along pleural surface

deep (intrapulmonary) lymphatic drainage present adjacent to bronchovascular bundle and along interlobular septa
differentiate b/w pores of kohn vs. lambert's canals
pores of kohn - connect adjacent alveoli to provide for collateral ventilation (13-21 per alveolus)

lambert's canal - direct communication between bronchiole and alveolar duct
characterized by flattened epithelial type I pneumocytes + cuboidal type II pneumocytes

a. bronchus
b. bronchiole
c. alveolus
C
characterized by ciliated pseudostratified columnar, goblet cells, cartilage, submucosal glands

a. bronchus
b. bronchiole
c. alveolus
A
characterized by simple cuboidal, no goblet cells, no cartilage or submucosal glands

a. bronchus
b. bronchiole
c. alveolus
B
name the dual vascular supply of the lungs. include their main fxns.
pulmonary and bronchial

pulmonary = originate from right heart; fxn as main gas exchange; form capillary network around alveoli

bronchial = originate from aorta/intercostal arteries; supply nutrition to airways/lungs
what are the locations of superficial vs. deep lymphatics of the lung?
superficial lymphatic drainage present along pleural surface

deep (intrapulmonary) lymphatic drainage present adjacent to bronchovascular bundle and along interlobular septa
Histologic features distinguishing bronchi from bronchioles
a) Bronchioles are lined by ciliated epithelium
b) Bronchioles lack cartilage and submucosal glands
c) Only bronchioles are intrapulmonary
d) Only bronchi have smooth muscle in their walls
e) Only bronchi are derived from the primitive laryngotracheal tube or bud
B
The Pulmonary Acinus is defined by which structures
a) Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveoli
b) Lobe, bronchopulmonary segment, lobule
c) Mainstem bronchus, lobar bronchus, segmental bronchus
d) Lobule, interlobular septa, alveoli
e) Lobule, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole
A