Case Study Asthma

1233 Words 5 Pages
A case study of asthma in a 10 year old European child.

This case study will cover the normal structure and function of the respiratory system. This case study will also discuss the changes that occur when asthma is triggered, and the routine diagnostic tests/vital signs for asthma. The normal range of the routine tests/vital signs for asthma and three nursing interventions that are required to meet the clients needs in relation to asthma will be explained further.
To stay alive we need oxygen, and to get the oxygen we breathe it in and in exchange we breathe out carbon dioxide, this is called respiration. Breathing or respiration happens continuously and automatically. The respiratory system has two respiratory tracts called the
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In the upper parts of the bronchi it has C-shaped cartiliaginous rings that help keep the bronchi to stay open. When the bronchi goes into lungs the cartilage decreases until it completely disappears. These branches split into even smaller and finer branches called bronchioles. Bronchioles contain smooth muscle and no cartilage, unlike the larger tubes. They rely on smooth muscles in their walls to keep the airways open. When the bronchioles are relaxed it causes the bronchiolar lumen to increase, thereby increasing the flow of air. The bronchioles regulate the flow of air to the alveoli, alveoli are the tiny air sacs that form at the end of the bronchioles that are encompassed by tiny capillaries. This is where the gas exchange takes place. Oxygen then passes through the alveoli and travels through the capillary walls and into the bloodstream. Simultaneously carbon dioxide transfers from the bloodstream into the alveoli, then gets …show more content…
Diagnosing a child with asthma is clinical and based on history, examination and assessing the response to treatment. There is no single diagnostic test for asthma in children, but a number of tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Doctors can diagnose children over the age of 5 years with the same tests they would do on an adult. They may ask if the child has eczema or hay fever as these usually come hand in hand with asthma. These tests are called pulmonary function tests. A spirometry is a breathing test to assess how well a persons lungs work. A peak flow test is another test that measures how fast you can blow out air from your lungs. If these tests arent clear then an airway responsivness test may be carried out as well as testing airway inflamation and allergy tests could also be conducted in diagnosing asthma. Vital signs in acute, severe asthma are: respiratory rate usually >30 breaths/min; heart rate >120 beats/min; wheezing throughout both the inspiration and the expiration; use of accessory respiratory muscles; evidence of suprasternal retractions; and pulsus paradoxus >12

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