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34 Cards in this Set

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Respiration definition

The entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells.




(Moving air into and out of the lungs is NOT respiration. It is VENTILATION.)

Function of mucous membranes
Warm, clean, and moisten the air
Lobes of lung? How many on Left and Right?
Two lobes on left, three on right
What is the site of gas transfer in the lungs?
Alveoli
When you increase the volume of a gas, what happens to the pressure?
When you increase the volume of a gas, the pressure goes down.
Which phase of ventilation requires muscular activity, inspiration or expiration?
Inspiration
Expiration depends on? (2)
Elastic recoil and surface tension
What does surface tension do to the alveoli?
It tends to collapse them.
What happens to surface tension when a bubble gets smaller?
Surface tension goes up as a bubble gets smaller.
In the lungs, surface tension would be so high the alveoli would collapse. Why don't they?
The alveoli make surfactant, which lowers surface tension.
What is the VC (vital capacity)?
The vital capacity, the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after a maximum inhalation.
What is TV (tidal volume)?
Tidal volume. The amount of air ventilated in one breath. Usually about 500 ml at rest.
What is Residual Volume?
Residual volume is the air left in the lungs after a maximal forced expiration.
What is dead space?
The amount of air in the body not subject to gas exchange.
What is anatomic dead space?
Air in the trachea and bronchi
What is alveolar dead space?
Air that enters non-working alveoli
What is physiologic dead space?
The sum of alveolar and anatomic dead space
What is minute ventilation?
Minute Ventilation = Tidal Volume x Respiratory Rate
What is alveolar ventilation?
The amount of air that gets to working alveoli per minute.



(Alveolar Ventilation = (Tidal Volume - Physiologic Dead Space) X Respiratory Rate

What is a partial pressure of a gas?
The amount of gas carried in the blood or tissues.
Where are the sensors to measure CO2 content?
In the brain.
Where are the sensors to measure O2 content?
In the carotid body and aortic arch.
What is the primary driver of respiration in healthy people?
The PCO2 (the amount of CO2 in the body)
What is the secondary driver of respiration in healthy people?
The PO2
What is the respiratory membrane?
The membrane through which gasses must travel to enter or leave the body. One layer of squamous cells in the alveoli, one layer of squamous cells in the capillary.
What cells make up the respiratory membrane?
One layer of squamous cells in the alveoli, one layer of squamous cells in the capillary.
What is Fick's Law?
Diffusion rate = k x Surface Area x (Patm-Pplasma)/Thickness of membrane
How is O2 transported?
Bound to hemoglobin
How is CO2 transported (3)?
Dissolved in plasma,

bound to hemoglobin,


as HCO3-

What is the main method of transport for CO2?
as HCO3-
What percent of hemoglobin is carrying oxygen when blood leaves the alveoli?
100%
What do we call the percent of hemoglobin carrying oxygen?
The hemoglobin saturation

What is the FEV1?

The volume of air exhaled in one second during a maximum forced expiration.

What is a normal FEV1?

Approximately 80% of the Forced Vital Capacity