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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
air sac
alveol/o alveolus
bronchial tube bronchoscopy
lungs air
to view
oldest medical specialty in US medical surgical managemnt and treatment diseases disorders of ear nose throat ENT related structures of head and neck ENT physicians
special skills of ENT or otolaryngology
diagnosing managing diseases of sinuses larynx oral cavity upper pharynx mouth throat structures of neck and face
primary care problems children and adults
hearing loss otolaryngologists
affects one in ten North Americans manage congenital disorders of outer and inner ear medical surgical treatment hearing ear infections balance disorders ear noise tinnitus nerve pain facial and cranial nerve disorders
nose primary skills of otolaryngologists
35 million people develop chronic sinusitis common health complaint
primary skill of otolaryngologist nasal cavitiy sinuses allergies senssess of smell breathing through appearance of nose
throat specific to otolaryngologist
communicating speech singing eating diseases of larynx voice boxc upper aero-digestive tract esophagus voice and swallowing disorders
head and neck otolaryngologists
nerves control sioght smewll hearig and face head neck treat infectious diseasews benign and malignant tumors facial trauma deformities of face cosmetic plastic reconstructive surgery
oatolaryngologist practie after
15 years of college post-graduate training 4 yrs med school 5 yrs specialty training pass American Board of otolaryngology exam 1-2 yr fellowship extensivew training in subspecialty
7 areas of subspecialty
pediatric otolaryngology otology/neurotology ears balance and tinnitus allergy facial pllastic and reconstructive surgery head neck larygnology throat rhinology nose
otolaryngologists offer most appropriate car
ear nose trhoat head/neck surgery
diseases of ear trauma cancer nerve pathway disorders hearing balance ear infection swimmer's ear hearing loss ear face neck pain dizziness ringing in ears tinnitus
pediatric otolaryngology
children special ENT problems birth defects head neck developmental delary otitus media tonsil adenoid infection airway problems Down's syndrome asthma allergy/sinus disease
head neck
cancerous noncancerous tumors in head and neck thyroid and parathyroid lump in neck or thyroid cancer of voice box
facial plastic and reconstructive surgery
cosmetic functional reconstructive surgical treatment abnormalilites of facew and neck deviated septum rhinoplasy nose facew lift cleft palate droping eyelids hair loss
disorders of nose and sisnuses sinus disorder nose bleed stuffy nose loss of smell
disorders of throat vioce swallowing problems sore throat hoarseness swallowing disorder gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD
treatment by meds immunotherapy allergy shots and or avoidance pollen dust mold food other sensitivities affect ear nose throat hay fever seasonal perennieal rhinitis chronic sinusitis laryngitis sore throat otitis media dizziness
what is respiration
act of breathing
inhaling inspiration taking in oxygen
exhaling expiration giving off carbon dioxide
what makes up repiratory system
organs involved in breathing
upper tract respiratory tract
nasal cavity
ethmoidal air cells
frontal sinuses
maxillary sinus
lower respiratory tract
lungs take in
oxygen allcells in body need to live and carry normal functions
lungs get rid of
carbon dioxide waste product of body's cells
lungs look like
pair of cone-shaped organs spongy, pinkish-gray tissue in chest thorax between neck and diaphragm
lungs inside membrane called
lungs separated by
mediastinum contains
heart large vessels
trachea windpipe
lymph nodes
right lung has 3
sections called Lobes
left lung has 2
when you breathe air
enters through nose/mouth
travels down throat larynx voice box and trachea windpipe
goes into lungs through tubes called
main-stem bronchi
one main-stem bronchus leads to
right lung and one to left lung
in the luings main-stem bronchi divide into
smaller bronchi
then even smaller tubes called
bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called
primary air cells of lungs
two main air passages to lungs
smallest branches of bronchi
hair on mucous membranes
main muscle used for breathing separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity
flap of cartilage prevents food from entering trachea windpipe
tube through which food passes from mouth down to stomach
muscular organ pumps blood through out body
sheets of muscle between each rib expand when air is inhaled and contract when air is exhaled
intercostal muscles
voice box
two organs extract oxygen from inhaled air and expel carbon dioxide in exhaled air
muscles help move diaphragm up and down for breathing
muscles attached to diaphragm
also known as nostrils
singular form of nares sis naris
interior area of nose lined with sticky mucous membrane contains tiny surface hairs called cilia
nasal cavity
located at entrance of nose hairs trap large particles inhaled
nose hairs
air spaces within skull
paranasal sinuses
covering lung and lining chest cavity membrane has 2 thin layers
pleural membrane
pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from heart lungs pumonary veins carry oxygenated blood back to heart
pulmonary vessels
area of brain controls breathing
respiratory center
bones attached to soine and central portion of breastbone support chest wall protect heart lungs other organs in chest
wall dividing two cavities
air-filled cavity within a bone provide mucus
area contains lungs area between lungs is mediastinum contains heart aorta esophagus trachea bronchial tubes and thymus
thoracic cavity
lymphatic tissue found at back of throat helps protect body from invading organisms
tube through which air passes from nose to lungs windpipe
step by step path from nose to alveoli
nasal cavity
paranasal sinus
nose is a
vital organ
nasal congestion and runny nose have effect on
quality of life energy level ability to breathe sleep to function in general
why is nose important
processes air breathed before enters lungs
most of activity takes place in and on
turbinates located
on sides of nasal passages
an adult ? liters of air
18,000-20,000 liters each day
your nose protects your health by
filterin air retaining particles as small as pollen grain 100% efficiency

humidifying air breathed adding moisture to prevent dyness of lining of lungs and bronchial tubes

warming cold air to body temp before arrives to lungs
where are salifary glands
in and around your mouth and throat
names of major salivary glands
sublingual glands
through tubes drain saliva called salivary ducts near upper teeth
under tongue
many ducts in floor of mouth
tiny gland called
minor salivary glands located in your lips inner cheek buccal mucosa other lingings of mouth and throat
slivary glands produce
saliva used to moisten mouth initiate digestion help protect teeth from decay
where does smell and taste process begin
when molecules release by substances around stimulate special nerve cells in nose mouth or throat these cells transmit messages to brain where smells or tastes are identified
small nerve cells stimulated by odors found in tiny patch of tissue in nose connect directly to brain
gustatory taste nerve cells
react to food or drink mixed with saliva clustered in taste buds of mouth and throat many small bumps can be seen on tongue contain taste buds these surface cells send taste info to nearby nerve fibers send messages to brain
common chemical sense chemosensory mechanism contributes sto
sense of smell and taste
thousands of free nerve endings especially in eyes nose mouth and throat moist areas identify sensations like ammonia menthol heat of chili etc.
flavor 4 basic
what causes smell and taste disorders
upper respiratory infections injury to head
loss of smell and taste
polyps in nasal or sinus cavities hormonal disturbances or dental problems prolonged exposure to certain chemicals insecticides some medicines
tobacco smoking
most concentrated form of pollution most exposed to impairs ability identfy odors diminishes sense of taste quitting improves smell function
radiation therapy patients with cancers of head and neck
complain lost smell and taste senses lost in course of some diseases of nervous system
patients who have lost their larynx voice box***
complain of poor ability to smell and taste
laryngectomy patients can use
special bypass tube to breathe through the nose again enhanced air flow through nose helps smell and taste sensation to be reestablished
some respiratory or lung diseases
asthma pneumonia TB lung cancer
335,000 die of
lung disease
lung disease is number___ killer in America
responsible for 1 in 7 deaths
lung disease other breathing problems number___ killer of babies younger than___
younger than one
more than 30 million Americans living with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease asthma emphysema chronic bronchitis
lung disease affects
people of all ages sgenders incomes but disproportionate share of minority pops
particularly african-americans
acute bronchitis is
inflammation of breathing tubes airways called bronchi production of mucus and other changes
2 most common bronchitis is
acute and chronic
acute is inflammation of mucus membranes of bronchial tubes
URI upper respiratorpy infection
includes any infections disease process starting with nose ending with lungs
viruses bacteria
common cold infuenza sinus problems minor sore throat
bronchitis is a _____infection or lung condition
lower respiratory infection
influenza flu
contagious viral respiratory tract infection 10-20 percent of pop; in US contract flu each year
flu characterized by abrupt onset of fever muscle aches sore throat nonproductive cough Influenza can lead to pneumonia and death
influenza divided into 3 types A B C
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
refers to lung diseases interferes with normal breathin
11 % US pop has COPD
2 most common chronic bronchitis and emphysema
causes not understood
most important cause cigarette smoking air pollution occupational exposures heredity
alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
symptoms COPD
chronic bronchitis cough sputum many years before shortness of breath

emphysema patients shortness of breath cough and sputum during a respiratory infection or in later stages of illness
chronic inflammatory lung disease recurrent breathing problems
chronic bronchitis
long-term inflammation of brochi increased production of mucous
cough and expedctoration mst days for at least 3 months per year for two years in a row

other causes of symptoms TB other lung diseases excluded
pulmonary emphysema
chronic lung condition alveoli or air sacs deswtroyed narrowed collapsed stretched or over-inflated
over-inflation air sacs result breakdown walls of alveoli decrease in respiratory function breathlessness damage to air sacs irreversible permanent holes in tissues of lower lungs
systic fibrosis
inherited disease abnormality in glands produce sweat and mucus chronic progressive may be fatal
affects various systems in children young adults
respiratory system
digestive system
reproductive system
Interstitial lung disease
interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
pulmonary fibrosis ILD
includes more than 180 chronic lung disorders

named for tissue between air sacs lungs called interstitium tissue affected by fibrosis(Scarring)
inflammation of lungs caused bacteria viruses chemical irritants serious inflammation air sacs fill with pus and other liquid
lobar pneumonia
affects one or more sections lobes of lungs
bronchial pneumonia bronchopneumonia
affects patches throughout both lungs
main types of pneumonia
bacterial pneumonia various bacteria streptococcus pheumoniae most common

viral pneumonia varous viruses accounts for half of all cases of pneumonia

mycoplasma pneumonia different symptoms physical signs cause mycoplasmas smallest free-living agent of hesease inhumankind characteristics of bacteria and viruses not classified as either cause mild widespread pneumonia all age groups
other less common pneumonias
inhaling food liquid gases dust fungi
primary pulmonary hypertension
lung disorder blood pressure in pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels
pulmonary embolism
severe life-threatening condition blocking of pulmonary artery foreign matter blood clot thrombus or pieces of it fat air tumor tissue
pulmonary sarcoidosis
rare disease inflammation 90% of cases found in lungs can occur in any organ small lumps granulomas heal disappear granulomas do not heal tissue inflamed scarred fibrotic c

can develop into PULMONARY FIBROSIS
pockets form in air tubes on lung become sites for infection
chronic bacterial infection other organs sometimes involved airborne disease
lung cancer
abnormal continuing multiplying of cells
grow into adjacent tissue spread to distant parts of body
mass of cancer cells eventually become
large enough produce lumps masses or tumors can be detected lumps can be benign or malignant
lung cancer starts in
lining of bronchi other areas of respeiratory system trachea bronchioles or alveoli
nearly all lung cancers
develop over period of many years

carcinomas cancer begins in lining or covering tissues of organ

tumor cells of each type of lung cancer grow and spread differently
each type requires different treatent

more 95% lung cancers called BRONHOGENIC CARCINOMA
lung cancers 2 types
non-small cell lung cancer more common than small cell lung cancer
small cell lung cancer 3 kinds
squamous cell carcinoma EPIDERMOID CARCINOMA most common type lung cancer in men begins in bronchidoes not spread quickly

adenocarcinoma begins ouoter edges of lungs under linging of bronchi most common in women non smokers

large cell carcinomas large abnormal-looking cells tumors begin outer edges of lungs
small cell lung cancer sometimes called
oat cell cancer
look like oats under microscope grow rapidly spreads to other organs
secondhand smoke
combo smoke from burning cig and smoke exhaled by smoker
over 4000 diff chemicals identified in secondhand smoke
at least 43 chemicals cause cancer more than 3000 non-smokers die lung cancer each yr
to document cigarette use
50-pack year smoking history
means average number of cig packs per day multiplied by number of years smoked
lung souds examined by
auscultation listening with stethoscope
normal sung sounds occur in
all parts of chest above collarbones low as bottom of rib cage
absent or decreased sounds are
inaudible absent or reduced in loudness decreased reduced airflow to segment of lungs

over inflation of portion of lungs emphysema air or fluid around lungs sometimes increased thickness of chest wall
several type of abnormal breath sosunds
wheezing sometimes heard without stethoscope other abnormal sounds also can be detected
crackles crepitations small clicking bubbling rattling sounds in portion of lung
believed to occur air opens closed alveoli air spaces

rales described as moist dry fine coarse
resemble snoring produced when air movement through large airways is obstructed or turbulent
high-pitched musical sounds produced by narrowed airways
occurring during expiration
How many Americans suffer from allergy***
45 million
hay fever
allergic rhinitis***
why was it called hay fever
workers would sneeze develop nasal and sinus congestion when they worked around hay in fields
what are the most common symptoms of allergic reaction
hay fever asthma eczema***
when do allergy symptoms appear
when body's immune system responds to substance like invader***
dangerous invader called**
antigen allergen
what specific defenders called
antibodies to entry site
what happens in battle between allergen and antibody
results in release of chemical mediators histameine into blood stream
cause changes in body
produces symptoms we feel
symptoms are
itching eyes sneezing nasal stuffiness nasal congestion drainage headache ***
hearing changes scratchy sore throats hoarseness and cough
other less common symptoms
balance disturbances swelling in face or throat tissues skin irritations respiratory problems and asthma
when do allergies occur
sometimes all year sometimes certain seasons
what is most successful symptom control
multiple managment approaches used imultaneously
minimizing exposure to allergens
managing symptoms with meds
desensitization with allergy shots
what is an allergen
what are most common
pollens food mold dust feathers animal dander chemicals drugs penicillin pollutants environmental
hay fever is caused by
pollens ragweed ****begins in august continues until first frost
grasses timothy orchard redtop sweet vernal Bermuda Johnson bluegrasses
early springtime hay fever is
pollens of trees elm maple birch poplar beech ash oak walnut sycamore cypress hickory pecan cottonwood alder
which allergens always present
dust household pet danders foods wool various chemicals sometimes worse in winter when house closed up
what is secondary to pollens
mold spores grow all year lo ng grow outdoors indoors dead leaves farm areas indoor plants old boods bathrooms damp areas indoor cheese fermented beverages
colorful or fragrant flowering plants rarely
cause allergy pollens too heavy to be airborne
are allergies serious
lost workdays decreased work efficiency poor school performance less enjoyment of life
common for allergy sufferers to develop
sinus or respiratory infections if not controlled
what meds useful in treatment
antihistamines nasal decongestant sprays steroid sprays saline sprays
based on detailed history and thorough exam coc may advise
testing to determine specific substances to which allergic
environmental control***
what are meds symptoms side effects
antihistamine sneezing runny nose stuffy nose itchy eyes congestion
drowsiness dry mouth and nose

decongestants stuffy nose congestion
stimulation insomnia rapid heart beat

combinations all of the above any of the above
treatments by otolaryngologist
depend on what you are allergic to and degree of sensitivity
cure for allergies?
administration of injections build up protective antibodies to specific allergens
like which allergens
pollens molds animal danders dust etc
most changes in voice result from
medical disorder
failure to seek care can lead to
hoarseness and more serious problems
a serious problem
laryngitis swelling of vocal cords due to infection
viral infection of upper respiratory track is most common cause for infection of voice box
what leads to hoarseness
vocal cords swell in size vibrate differently
best treatment
rest reduce voice use stay well hydrated
antibiotics are not effective
benign growths on vocal cords caused by
boice misuse or overuse trauma injury to vocal cords lesions on vocal cords alter vocal cord vibration hoarseness chronic change in voice quality roughness raspiness increased effort to talk
gastroesophageal reflux disease
laryngopharyngeal reflux disease LPRD
reflux backflow of gastric contents into throat of stomach acid cause variety of symptoms in esophagus swallowing tube throat
common symptoms of gastric acid irritation of throat LPRD
hoarseness chronic or intermittent swallowing problems foreign body sensation throat pain
poor speaking technique***
speaking abnormally or uncomfortable pitch too high too low percussuive speaking too loud focusing on first syllable of each word
causing vocal fatique
other factors improper speaking tech
insufficient improper breathing while talking breathing from shoulders or neck area instead of lower chest or abdominal area
vocal cord paralysis
problems between nerves and muscles in voice box or larynx condition is paralysis or weakness of one or both vocal cords
most recover on their own within several months if not require surgical treatment before permanent
thrat cancer
voice changes in quality chronic hoarseness roughness or rapiness symptoms occur at early stage in development of cancer prompt attention to changes in voice early diagnosis early and successful treatment of vocal cord cancer obtained
persistent hoarseness or change in voice longer than two -four weeks in smoker
evaluation by otolaryngologist to determine if there is cancer
treatments of cancer of voice box larynx
surgery radiation therapy and/or chemo
when vocal cord cancer found early
typically only surgery radiation therapy required and cure rate high greater than 90 percent
lung cancer diagnosed how
complete medical history check for risk factors smptoms phys exam
other procedures used to diagnose lung cancer
chest x-ray mass or spot on lungs
other special x-rays and scans CT more precise info size shape position of tumor
sputum cytology study of phlegm spit cells under microscope
needle biopsy needle into mass while lungs are viewed on CT scan sample of mass removed evaluated in pathology lab under microscope
fiberoptic flexible lighted tube passed through mouth into brochi find centrally located tumors blockages gather samples of tissue fluids to be examined under microscope
process in which small cut made in neck so tissue sample can be taken from lymph nodes mediastinal nodes along windpipe and major bronchial tube areas evaluate under microscope
x-rays scans of brain liver bone adrenal glands
determine if cancer has spread from where it started into other areas of body
how is it treated
3 main types of surgery choice depends on size and location of tumor extent of cancer general health of patient other factors
segmental or wedge resection
remove only small part of lung
removal of entire lobe of lung
removal of entire lung
radiation therapy radiotherapy
use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop from growing and dividing
use of drugs to kill cancer cells