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15 Cards in this Set

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Reliability

The ability to produce similar results when repeated measurements are made under identical conditions.

4 Scales of Measurement

Nominal: Qualitative Differences


Ordinal: Ranked Differences


Interval: Has a zero, may become negative.


Ratio: Absolute zero.

Types of Measures

Behavioral: Observational, measured through frequency, number of errors, and latency.


Physiological: Bodily functions.


Self-Report: Interviews, scales, surveys.


Implicit: Measures processes that aren't under conscious control.

Questionnaire Formats

Open Ended: Free Response


Restricted: Multiple Choice


Partially Open Ended: Combination


Rating Scales

Test Reliability in Questionnaire

Evaluating testing and retesting and split half and parallel forms. Increasing reliability by using more questions, standardized administering, and clear language.

Nuremburg Code

1. Must have a disclosed purpose and voluntary participation.


2. Thoughtless research is not unethical.


3. Researchers are responsible for participants safety.


4. If it becomes unacceptable, it must be shut down immediately.

Declaration of Helsinki

The World Medical Association stated that research has to be put up for review.

APA Guidelines

American Psychological Association made the code of conduct in 2002.




Animals: IACUC - Insitutional Animal Care and Use Committee

Internal & External Validity

Internal: The ability for a research design to test a hypothesis. Threats: maturation, testing, bias selection, and mortality.




External: The degree in which a study may be extended or generalized. Threats: interactions, multiple treatments, and reactions to settings.

Casual & Causal Relationships

Casual = Correlational


A relationship where changes in A are related to changes in B, but not enough research was done to show influences.




Causal = Experimental


Cause and effect, where changes in A causes changes in B.

Experimental Designs

Between Subject Designs: Different groups are assigned randomly to levels of IV.


Within Subjects Design: A single group is exposed to all levels of independent variable.


Single Subject Designs: Focus on all differences and changes in one subject throughout every treatment.

Carryover

A prior treatment changes the participants behavior on a future measure or trial.




Sources: Fatigue, sensitization, adaptation, and learning.




Reducing: Counterbalance, treatment order, and minimization.

Experimental Research

Independent variable is changed, dependent variable is affected. There is an experimental group and a control group.

Correlation Research

Casual relationships where predictions made be made and there is no manipulations.

Quasi Experimental Designs

Groups are chosen to test a variable, but there is no pre-selection process.


Cross Sectional: Several age groups used for a generation effect.


Longitudinal: One group used over time in repeated testing.


Cohort-Sequential: Combination