• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


evolution has driven our bodies to adapt to famine so we store extra food as fat


how we eat and how much we eat


20% more fat than recommended for one's height

Body Mass Indez (BMI)

estimates body fat base on height and weight


BMI = 25 to 29.9


BMI = 30 or higher


the power to do work

calories (c)

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C

Calories (capital C)

food energy is measured

kilocalorie (kcal)

equal to 1000 calories, or 1kcal


food contains; broken down into building blocks or subunits


is a complex animal carbohydrate, made up of linked chains of glucose molecules

short term energy source

in animal cells - in muscle and liver cells


are the type of lipid found in fat cells that are used for long-term energy storage

in animcal cells - in fat cells

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

energy from food is ultimately captured in the molecule

Aerobic Respiration

a series of reactions that converts store food energy into ATP

occurs in the presence of oxygen


is the most common source of energy for all organisms

Glucose + Oxygen -->

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (+ Heat)


first step

occurs in the cytoplasm

series of reactions that break down sugar into smaller units (pyruvate)

occurs in the absence of oxygen

Citric Acid Cycle

second step of aerobic respiration

series of reactions that removes electrons from pyruvate

NAD+ picks up and transfers electrons

releases carbon dioxide

Electron Transport Chain

final step of aerobic respiration

electrons stripped during the citric acid cycle are carried to the inner membranes of the mitochondria

electrons are passed down a chain of molecules to oxygen

oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to produce water

produces most of the ATP


occurs in the cytoplasm

makes lactic acid or alcohol

Trans fat

is a type of vegetable fat that has been hydrogenated (hydrogen atoms have been added) to make it solid at room temperature

Saturated Fat

animal fat, like butter

saturated fat is solid at room temperature

Unsaturated fats

which come from plants, are liquid at room temperature and are considered more healthful

olive oil

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

hereditary molecule that is passed from parents to offspring

serves as the instruction manual for how to build an individual


found in the nucleus


single DNA molecule wrapped around proteins

Human DNA

humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes

(one chromosome from each pair is inherited from the biological mother)(one chromosome from each pair is inherited from the biological father)






DNA is composed

each nucleotide consists of sugar, a phosphate, and a base

Nucleotides bases

adenine (A)

thymine (T)

guanine (G)

cytosine (C)

Double helix

two strands of nucleotides pair up and twist around each other to form a spiral-shaped

Hydrogen bonding

two strands of DNA double helix are held together by base pairing...between the bases of each strand

Complementary base pairing

A always pairs with T

C always pairs with G

DNA profile

extract the DNA from the cells to create and individual

DNA replication

natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule

first, hydrogen bonds that hold base pairs together are broken down and the helix is unwound

Complimentary base-pairing

takes advantage of rules

DNA polymerase

reads the DNA and adds complimentary nucleotides using the rules of base pairing

Semi-conservative mechanism

produces two copies of the original DNA molecule

each molecule consists of one of the strands of the original DNA molecule and a new strand

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

PCR is a laboratory technique used to replicate and amplify a specific DNA segment


short segments of DNA that guide DNA polymerase to the section of DNA to copy


one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism

Short tandem repeats (STR)

use shortcut

are sections of a chromosome in which DNA sequences are repeated

Gel electropgoresis

laboratory technique that separates fragments of DNA by size

Making DNA profile

separated fragments of DNA create a specific pattern of bands

visible using fluorescence

unique to each person

compare patterns of DNA

different individuals have different DNA banding patterns


macromolecule made of repeating amino acid subunits

Amino acids

building blocks of proteins

20 different amino acids

all have the same basic core structure

each also has a unique chemical side group


a sequence of DNA that contains the instructions to make at least one protein

found in chromosomes

Gene expression

synthesis of a protein from a gene

what are the stages in the cell cycle?

G1, S, G2, M

what phase of the cell cycle is where a new copy of a cell's DNA is synthesized?

S phase

What are the stages of mitosis?

Prophase, Methaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Where does a cell spend most of its time?


What macromolecule has the greates caloric value per gram?


What are excess carbohydrates in our body stored as?

they are stored as fats

what are the inputs for aerobic respiration?

glucose and oxygen

what are the stages of aerobic respiration?

glycolysis - citric acid cycle - electron transport chain

in what stage aerobic respiration occue in the cytoplasm?


in what process is carbon dioxide produced in?

the citric acid cycle

what process yields the most ATP?

electron transport

in what process does fermentation share with aerobic respiration?


how much ATP is produced from one molecule of glucose during fermentation?


what is the significance of the 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans?

it determines a person's sex

what parts of DNA are the rungs and what parts are the stringers?

the bases are the rungs, and the sugars and phosphates are the stingers

what is the opposite DNA segment of AATAGC?


what is meant by "semiconservative" replication?

each newly replicated strand of DNA consists of one original strand and one newly formed strand

what is a gene?

a segment of DNA that encodes at least one protein

what would you fuse to produce a human gene in goat milk?

regulatory elements from a protein produced in goat milk to coding region of the human gene

transcription occurs in a eukaryotic cell's ________, and it uses ________, to produce ________.

nucleus; genes; mRNA

how is it possible for cells in your kidneys produce different proteins and carry out different tasks than cells in your brain?

kidney and brain cells have the same DNA but use different genes

condons are found in ________; anticodons are found in ________?


what are short tandem repeats (STRs)

blocks of repeated DNA sequences (AGCT) that vary in length from person to person

what is genetically modified organism (GMO)?

an organism that contains genes from different species

Whose DNA would be least similar to yours, mother, father, mother's brother, identical twin, or elder sibling?

mother's brother