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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

ethical dilemma

type of ethical situation in which two courses of action can be equally appropriate


concept of doing no harm


"doing good" for others


a matter of dealing with all people in the same fair manner


the right of people to have choices and to make their own decisions regarding those choices


keeping commitments made to others


the obligation to be truthful in words and actions


responsibilities owed to others

academic integrity

policies of an academic institution in regards to their expectations for student behavior related to doing one's own work

moral sensitivity

being able to identify a situation with ethical overtones

moral judgment

being able to analyze a situation and make an appropriate decision

moral motivation

distinguishing which moral factors are more relative than others

moral character

having the courage to act on the decisions one makes

moral courage

being ready to take action in stressful situations

code of ethics

some type of document that describes the behaviors to which members of the profession are expected to adhere

Standards of Ethical Conduct for the PTA

-respect the inherent dignity, and rights, of all individuals

-be trustworthy and compassionate in addressing the rights and needs of client

-make sound decisions in collaboration with PT

-demonstrate integrity in all relationships

-fulfill legal and ethical obligations

-enhance competence through lifelong acquisition of knowledge

-support organizational behaviors and practices that benefit society

-participate in efforts to meet health needs of people locally, nationally, or globally

RIPS Model of Ethical Decision Making

-in which REALM is the problem occurring (individual, organizational, societal)

-which type of INDIVIDUAL PROCESS is required of me (moral sensitivity, judgment, motivation, courage)

-what kind of ethical SITUATION is involved (issue, dilemma, distress, temptation, silence)

APTA Ethics Judicial Committee

charged with educating members about ethical practice and the documents that regulate it

ethical issue

a value is challenged

ethical dilemma

two alternative courses of action may each be considered right

ethical distress

right course of action is clear but can't or not allowed to do it

ethical temptation

a benefit exists for doing wrong vs. right

ethical silence

values are challenged but no one is addressing it or taking action

Possible EJC Decision Outcomes

-dismissal of charges

-written reprimand

-suspending the violator's APTA membership

-expelling the violator from the Association

Primary Characteristics of Cultural Diversity

-religious affiliation






Secondary Characteristics of Cultural Diversity




-marital status

-gender identity

-sexual orientation

-military status

What is Culture?

-beliefs, values, and norms that people use to identify who they are and how to interact with others

-an individualized "lens" through which people view themselves, each other, and society

-may be shaped by genetics, but more so upbringing and experiences


when one group (or individual) has an advantage over another in terms of resources, decision making, and influence


when one group can assume that its cultural norms and expectations are accepted and supported, without having to ask for that to be the case

cultural destructiveness

-forced assimilation


-rights and privileges for dominant groups only

cultural ineffectiveness


-maintain stereotypes

-unfair hiring practices

cultural neutrality

-differences ignored

-"treat everyone the same"

-only meets needs of dominant groups

cultural pre-competence

-explore cultural issues

-be committed

-assess needs of organization and individuals

cultural competence

-recognize individual and cultural differences

-seek advice from diverse groups

-hire culturally unbiased staff

cultural proficiency

-implement changes to improve services based upon cultural needs

-do research and teach

Contact Guard Assistance

usually associated with balance

Minimal Assistance

patient requires less than 25% assistance

Moderate Assistance

patient requires 26-50% assistance

Maximal Assistance

patient requires 51-75% assistance

Dependent Assistance

patient is unable to participate

Documentation of Assistance

-level of assistance





-equipment or devices used

Transfer Precautions

-footwear to prevent slippage

-safety belt to provide security

-be alert for unusual or adverse effects

-be mindful of dressings, tubes, casts

-stand in front and slightly to side of patient

-ensure adequate support/stabilization

-remove unnecessary items/clutter from area

Transfer Precautions: Total Hip Replacement

-avoid flexion greater than 90 degrees, adduction, and rotation

-avoid extension beyond neutral

-avoid crossing ankles

-do not pull surgical limb

-do not lie on surgical side

Transfer Precautions: Low Back Trauma

-avoid excessive lumbar rotation

-avoid trunk side bending

-avoid trunk flexion

-logroll vs. segmental rolling

-increase comfort with hips and knees partially flexed in supine or sidelying

Transfer Precautions: Spinal Cord Injury

-avoid rotational movements

-do not move the person downward by pulling on lower extremities

-logroll the person when turning

Transfer Precautions: Burns

-avoid shearing forces

-elevate body segments during movement

Transfer Precautions: Hemiplegia

-avoid pulling on involved extremities

-avoid using involved side to provide support

Patient Bill of Rights

-to be treated with respect and dignity

-to receive safe, appropriate care

-to have procedures explained

-to know the identity of their health-care providers

-to have a choice in who is providing their care

-to refuse treatment or to receive a second opinion

-to privacy and confidentiality

-to file a complaint or grievance

informed consent

-explanation of the examination, diagnosis, and interventions

-risks, benefits, and alternatives to interventions

-opportunity for patient to ask questions

-a formal request for permission to proceed with plan of care


-Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act


-providers must develop standard procedures for ensuring that confidential patient info remains secure and that patients are aware of their rights regarding privacy of info

stages of grief







-being able to perceive the patient's frame of reference

-using that insight to connect more effectively with the patient


process of enabling patients to take an active leadership role in their health-care decisions


the process of asserting oneself to represent the needs of a particular group or individual


doing what one says one will do


-the sense of connection between providers and their clients

-a relationship of mutual trust and understanding

open-ended questions

-those that require the patient to give more than a "yes/no" answer

-encourages the patient to share more info, enabling the PTA to gain a more complete picture of the patient's history and concerns

active listening

-restatement: after the speaker says something, the listener says it back to him, often in the form of a question

-reflection: listener comments not only on the content, but also adds his interpretation

-clarification: listener gives speaker the opportunity to correct his interpretation of the speaker's words


-Coronary/Cardiac Care Unit

-Critical Care Unit


-Intensive Care Unit

-Intermediate Care Unit


Medical Intensive Care Unit


-Neurological Intensive Care Unit

-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit


Open Heart Recovery Unit


Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Arterial Line Precautions

-no BP cuff above infusion site

-keep infusion site at heart level

-avoid infusion site above heart level for prolonged periods

-avoid disturbing line; exercise with caution

IV Line Precautions




-air embolism


Swan-Ganz Catheters

-IV tube inserted in internal jugular or femoral vein, guided to subclavian and into pulmonary artery

-provides continuous Pulmonary Artery Pressure

-mobility may be restricted at catheter site

-exercise with caution


-Total Parenteral Nutrition

-infusion pump, inserted into subclavian vein, that administers fluids and nutrients at a constant flow

-shoulder flexion/abduction may be restricted

-exercise with caution

intracranial monitoring

-measures pressure against skull by brain tissue, blood, or CSF

-avoid isometrics and Valsalva maneuver

-avoid neck flexion, hip flexion > 90 degrees, and prone-lying

-optimal position is head of bed elevated 30 degrees

-momentary elevation of ICP is normal

nasogastric tube

-remove fluid or gas from stomach

-patient will not be able to eat food or drink fluids

-exercise can be performed, but movement of patient's head and neck should be avoided, especially flexion or forward bending

gastric tube

-inserted directly into stomach through incision in patient's abdomen

-exercise can be performed as long as caregiver is aware of tube and avoids removing it

urinary catheter

-can be internal or external

-maintain tube below region being drained

-do not raise bag above level of bladder for sustained periods

-avoid disrupting, pulling, occluding, or disconnecting tube

chest tube

-used to remove air, blood, and purulent matter

-keep collection device below level of tube insertion

-monitor breath sounds for changes before and after

-avoid direct pressure on chest tube


-endotracheal tube

-allows suction of bronchial tree

-prevents patient from talking

mechanical ventilation

-maintain adequate and appropriate air exchange when normal respiration is inhibited or cannot be actively performed by patient

-establish non-communication methods

-be mindful of increased risk of contracture, skin breakdown, and deconditioning

nontraditional leadership

persons in traditional leadership positions delegate decision-making responsibilities to other individuals or groups of individuals within the organization, many of whom are in positions not traditionally associated with leadership

shared responsibilities

creating leadership demands from those at all levels of the health care organization

functional leadership

rotating people in and out of leadership roles as needed for different tasks and projects based on their interests, unique skill sets, and knowledge bases

traits of effective leaders

-modeling desired behaviors with words and actions

-encouraging others

-being comfortable in challenging existing processes

-empowering others to take action

most important entry-level PTA traits

-being able to recognize changes in the patient's status

-appearing confident in one's own abilities

-being able to manage time during patient interventions

-being able to decide how to progress or modify delivery of a patient's intervention within POC

-being able to respond to variations in the daily schedule without demonstrating stress

Generic Abilities/Professional Behaviors

-tool used to develop leadership skills

-identifies 10 traits necessary fur success in PT

Guide to Physical Therapist Practice

-framework for describing and implementing PT practice

-educate non-PT providers in the services that PT can provide

-describes the types of conditions seen in PT and the many tests, measures, and interventions used by clinicians to treat those conditions


individuals who are the recipients of PT exam, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention and who have a disease, disorder, condition, impairment, functional limitation, or disability


individuals who engage the services of a PT and who can benefit from PT's consultation, interventions, professional advice, health promotion, fitness, wellness, or prevention services

-also businesses, school systems, and others to whom PTs provide services

acute care PT

-cardiac rehab

-inpatient rehab

-wound care


outpatient PT

-sports medicine

-women's health

-aquatic therapy

-industrial medicine

-performing arts therapy

SNF/ECF/TCU/Subacute Rehab

-provide residential and medical services for elderly who require 24-hour medical care

-often have multiple medical conditions

-PTA focuses on maximizing resident's mobility skills

Home Care/Hospice

-patients have limited access to outpatient services due to mobility or medical conditions

-requires high levels of creativity and problem-solving abilities

-lots of strengthening and transfer training

Pediatric Rehab

-injuries are more likely the result of chronic neuromuscular diseases or disorders

-PT focuses on motor control and mobility by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination

-work closely with parents/caregivers

-also focuses on prevention

Floating/Traveling PTA

-PTA needs to be flexible and enjoy a variety of responsibilities

-be able to catch on quickly to new routines

-be able to work comfortably in different settings under variable levels and styles of supervision


-PTAs may function as faculty assistants

-may be primary faculty member

-will also continue to work in the clinical environment