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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who practices psychotherapy?

Clinical Psychologist


Counseling Psychologist

School Psychologist

Clinical Social Worker

Mental Health Counselor

Psychiatric Nurse

Pastoral Counselor

Types of psychotherapy


Humanistic Therapies

Behavior Therapies

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Group Therapies


Emotional problems caused by repressed memories, motives, and conflict related to adverse childhood experiences

Key figure= Sigmund Freud

Goal of psychoanalysis
reduced internal conflicts; gain insight into unconscious causes of symptoms
Psychoanalytic Techniques

Free Association

Dream Analysis

- Latent content

- Manifest content

Analysis of Transference

Free Association
saying whatever comes to mind
Dream Analysis

Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious

- Manifest Content= obvious, visible meaning

- Latent Content= hidden, symbolic meaning

Analysis of transference
transfer feelings about important people in life to therapist
Humanistic Therapies

helping people gain insight into their thoughts, emotions, and behavior

Key figures= Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls

2 types of humanistic therapies

Client-centered therapy

Existential therapy

Client-centered therapy

non-directive therapy based on insights from conscious thoughts and feelings

Effective client-centered therapist:

- unconditional positive regard

- Empathy

- Authenticity

- Therapist reflects the client's thoughts and feelings (but does not interpret them)

Existential Therapy

Insight therapy focusing on the problems of existence such as meaning, choice, and responsibility

Emphasizes free will and the power of choice

Behavior Therapies

Using learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior

Learning principles= classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modeling

Insight is unnecessary to change a behavior

Classical conditioning therapies (Behavioral Therapy)

Aversion Therapy


Vicarious Desensitization

Virtual Reality Exposure

Aversion Therapy

individual learns to associate a strong aversion to an undesirable habit

Ex: rapid smoking, electric shocks while drinking

moving up the hierarchy of fears while inducing relaxation
Vicarious Desensitization
observe models performing the feared behavior
Virtual Reality Exposure
presents feared stimuli in a controlled fashion
Operant conditioning therapies (Behavioral Therapy)

Nonreinforcement and Extinction

Reinforcement and Token Economies

Nonreinforcement and Extinction
Identifying and removing the reward that is maintaining a behavior
Reinforcement and Token Economies
use tokens to immediately reward positive behaviors, which are exchanged for privileges, candy, etc.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Attempt to replace irrational cognitions and maladaptive behaviors with more rational cognitions and adaptive behaviors

Focus on the present

Key figures= Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck

Types of Cognitive-Behavioral therapy

Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Therapy for Depression

Rational- Emotional Behavioral Therapy
Attempt to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problems
Cognitive Therapy for Depression

Identifying and modifying distorted negative core beliefs


- recognize thoughts that lead to depression

- gather information to test their beliefs

Group Therapies

Group Therapy

Self-help Therapy

Family Therapy

Group therapy
mental health professional counsels multiple people at once
Self-help groups
peers with similar problems, often no mental health professional
family therapies
focus on interactions between family members
Advantages of group therapy


costs less

deals with multiple people

Disadvantages of group therapy
people could believe that another person's problems are worse than their own

Is psychotherapy effective?

80% of the treated people have better outcomes than the average untreated person

Overall, the different techniques are equally effective

- However some therapies work better for certain diagnoses than others

Empirically supported treatments=backed by research data


the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances
Circumstances of resilience (threatening situations)
poverty, divorce, maltreatment/ abuse
Factors related to resilience
overcoming the odds despite high-risk status, sustained competence under stress, recovery from trauma