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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What was Freud's original view of the cause of childhood conflicts, and what view did he substitute?What evidence did he have for either view?
Initially, Freud pointed to childhood
sexual abuse. Later,he said the problem was childhood sexual fantasies,such as the Oedipus complex. His only evidence was that he thought he could infer these childhood events from his parents' dreams and symptoms.
If someone has persistent problems with independence and dependence, Freud would suggest a fixation at which psychosexual stage?
Freud would interpret this behavior as a fixation at the oral stage.
What kind of behavior would Freud expect of someone with a strong id and a weak superego? What behavior would Freud expect of someone with an unusually strong superego?
Someone with a strong id and a weak superego could be expected to give in to a variety of sexual and other impulses that other people would inhibit. Someone with an unusually strong superego would be unusually inhibited and dominated by feeling of guilt.
Match these Freudian defense mechanisms with the situations that follow:repression,regression,denial,projection,rationalization,reaction formation,displacement,sublimation
A. A man who is angry with his neighbor goes deer hunting.
B. A smoker insists there is no convinving evidence that smoking impairs health
C. Someone who secretly enjoys pornography works to outlaw it
D.A man who beats his wife writes a book arguing that people have an instinctive need for aggressive behavior.
E. A woman forgets a doctor's appointment for a test for cancer.
F.Someone who has difficulty dealing with others reports to pouting and crying.
a.displacement b.denial c.reaction formation d.projection e.repression f.regression g rationalization h sublimation
How does Jung's idea of the collective unconscious differ from Freud's idea of the unconscious?
Jung's collective unconscious is the same for all people and is present at birth. Freud believed the unconscious developed from repressed experiences.
How could we explain self-handicapping in Adler's theory?
In Alder's theory, people sometimes put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for failure so that in their imagination they can maintain a sense of superiority
Supposed someone observes your behavior over a period of time and reports that your personality seems "inconsistent". How does the learning approach to personality explain that inconsistency?
You learn your behaviors one situation at a time. You may have learned to be friendly in one situation and not another or honest in one situation and not another.
What does humanistic psychology have in common with the ideas of Alfred Adler?
Adler emphasized the importance of people's beliefs and the possibility of a better than normal personality. Humanistic psychology is based on Adler's approach.
Why do some professors avoid looking at students' names when they grade essay exams?
they want to avoid being biased by their first impressions of the students.
What is the advantage of the Implicit Association Test over asking people about their racial prejudices?
The Implicit Association Test reveals prejudices that people do not want to admit, even to themselves.
What would be an improvement on the advice "try to avoid seeming prejudiced"?
It is better to try to have a positive experience and to enjoy cultural differences. Increased contact helps overcome intergroup tensions, especially if people if people work together for a common goal.
Classify the following as either internal or external attribution:
a.She contributed money to charity because she is generous.
b.She contributed money to charity because she wanted to impress her boss,who was watching.
c.She contributed money to charity because she owed a favor to the man who was asking for contribution.
a internal b. external c. external
An internal attribution relates to a stable aspect of personality or attitudes;an external attribution relates to the current situation
Juanita returns from watching The Return of the Son of Sequel Strikes Back Again 2 and says it was excellent. Most other people disliked the movie. Will you make an internal or external attribution for Juanita's opinion?Why? (distinctiveness, consensus, or consistency)
You probably will make an internal attribution because of consensus. When one person's behavior differs from others, we make an internal attribution
How would the fundamental attribution affect people's attitudes toward actors and actresses who portrayed likable and contemptible characters?
Because of the fundamental attribution error,people would tend to think that performers who portray likable characters are themselves likable, and those who play contemptible people probably resemble those characters.
Who is more likely to make the fundamental attribution error,Americans or Chinese?
Americans and others from Western cultures are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error because more to situational factors than do westerners
If instead of watching someone, you close your eyes and imagine yourself in that person's position, will you be more likely to explain the behavior with internal or external attribution? Why?
You will be more likely to give an external attribution because you will become more like an actor and less like an observer.
Why would people sometimes intentionally do something likely to harm their own performance?
People sometimes do something to harm their own performance to give themselves an excuse for doing poorly, especially if they expected to do poorly anyway.
What test or method mentioned earlier in this chapter demonstrates mixed or contradictory attitudes?
some people express one attitude openly but demonstrate another attitude on the Implicit Association Test.
Suppose your parents pay you to get a good grade in a boring course. According to cognitive dissonance theory, are you more likely to develop a positive attitude toward your studies if your parents pay you $10 or $100
You will come to like your studies more if you are paid $10. If you are only $10, you won't be able to tell yourself that you are studying harder only for the money. Instead, you will tell yourself that you must be really interested. The theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation leads to the same prediction: If you study hard without any strong external reason, you perceive that you have internal reasons for studying.
You listen to a discussion about the best kinds of seafood for people to eat. Later, you hear a discussion about the best kind of cat food. You do not have a cat. In which case you will follow the central route to persuasion?
you will pay more attention to the evidence and logic, following the central route to persuasion, for the discussion about what seafood is best for people to eat.
A salesperson calls at your door and says that several of your neighbors (whom the salesperson names) have bought the product and recommended you as another possible customer. What techniques of persuasion is this salesperson using?
The salesperson is relying on endorsement by a group that you presumably like and trust. Also, you are likely to be persuaded by people similar to yourself.
Identify each of the following as an example of the foot-in-the door technique, the bait-and-switch technique, or the that's not all technique.
a.A credit card company offers you a card with a low introductory rate. After a few months, the interest rate on your balance doubles.
b.A store marks its price "25%"off and then scratches that out and marks them 50% off
c.A friend asks you to help carry some supplies over to the elementary school for an afternoon tutoring program. When you get there, the principal says that one could take her place until she arrives. You agree and spend the rest of the afternoon tutoring. The principal then talks you into coming back every week as a tutor.
a.bait-and switch b. that's not all technique c.foot-in-the door technique
At a meeting of your student government , you suggest a new method of testing and grading students. The other members immediately reject your plan. Should you give up?
The fact that your idea was rejected does not mean that you should give up. If you and a few allies continue to present this plan, showing apparent agreement among yourselves, the majority may eventually adopt a similar plan probably without giving you credit for it.
If you want your children to preserve the beliefs and attitudes you try to teach them, should you give them only arguments that support those beliefs or should you also expose them to attacks on those beliefs?Why?
You should expose them to weak attacks on their beliefs so that they will learn how to resist such attacks.
According to evolutionary theory,attractiveness is a sign of good health. Why would it be difficult for an unhealthy individual to produce "counterfeit" attractiveness?
Attractive feature such as bright feathers in a bird or large muscles in a man require much energy. It would be difficult for an unhealthy individual to devote enough energy to produce such features.
According to evolutionary theory, a face with average features is attractive. Why?
Average features must have been successful for our ancestors for the genes to spread in the population. Therefore, average features are a sign of probable health.
someone your own age from another country moves next door. Neither of you speaks the other's language. What factors will tend to strengthen the likelihood of you becoming friends? What factors will tend to weaken it?
Proximity and familiarity will strengthen the likehood of your becoming friends. The similarity principle will weaken it. Because of the difference in languages, you will have little chance to discover similarities in interests or attitudes. In fact, proximity will probably not be as potent a force as usual because it serves largely as a means of enabling people to discover what they have in common.
suppose astronauts discover beings on another planet,similar to us except that all men have exactly the same wealth and women remain fertile all their lives instead of losing fertility at menopause. What would an evolutionary theorist predict about the mate preferences of men and women on this planet?
If all men are equally wealthy, women would select men on another basis,such as appearance. If women's fertility lasts as late in life as men's does, then the men on this planet should not have a strong preference for younger women
If you have a troubled relationship with a boy friend or girlfriend, will you have a good chance of working out your problems after you get married?
No, couples who have a mixture of positive and negative feelings toward each other before marriage have a much increased probability of divorce.
At the start of training, the CS elicits _and the UCS elicits_. After many repetitions of the CS followed by the UCS, the CS elicits_and the UCS elicits_.
No reponse ( or at least nothing of interest) the UCR the CR still the UCR
In this example,identify the CS,UCS,CR, and UCR. Every time an army drill sergeant calls out "ready, arim, fire," the artillery shoots, making a painfully loud sound that causes you to flinch. After a few repetitions, you tense your muscles after the word "fire",before the shot itself
The conditioned stimulus is the sound "ready, aim, fire" The unconditioned stimulus is the artillery shot. The unconditioned response is flinching;the conditioned reponse is tensing.
In Pavlov's experiment on conditioned salivation in response to a buzzer, what procedure produces extinction? What procedure produces spontaneous recovery?
to bring about extinction,present the buzzer repeatedly without presenting food. To bring about spontaneous recovery, first bring about extinction;then wait hours or days and present the buzzer again.
When someone develops tolerance to the effects of a drug injection, what are the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response and UR?
The CS is the injection procedure. The UD is the entry of the drug into the brain. Both conditioned response and the UR are the body's defenses against the drug
Within the classical conditioning interpretation of drug tolerance, what procedure should extinguish tolerance?
To extinguish tolerance, present the injection procedure (CS) without injecting the drug (US) Instead, inject water or salt water. Siegel demonstrated that repeated injections of salt water do reduce tolerance to morphine in rats.
if classical conditioning depended entirely on presenting the CS and UCS at nearly the same time, what result should the experimenters have obtained in rescorla's experiment?
If classical conditioning depended entirely on presenting the CS and UCS at nearly the same time, the rats in both groups would have responded equally to the conditioned stimulus. regardless of how often they received the unconditioned stimulus at other times.
suppose you have already learned to flinch when you hear the sound of a dentist's drill. Now your dentist turns on some soothing background music during the drilling. The background music is paired with the pain just as much as the drill sounds is. Will you learn to flinch at the sound of the background music?
You will not learn to flinch at the sound of the background music. Because the drill sound already predicted the pain, the new stimulus in uninformative and will not be strongly associate with the pain.
How does a radical behaviorist differ from a methodological behaviorist?
All behaviorists insist that conclusions must be based on measurements or observations of behavior. However, a methodological behaviorist sometimes uses behavioral observations to make inferences about motivations or other internal states. A radical behaviorists avoid discussion of internal events and insists that internal events are never the cause of behavior.
Why do behaviorists reject explanations in terms of thoughts?
We cannot observe or measure thoughts or other internal events. We infer them from observed behaviors and therefore,it is circular to use them as an explainations of behavior.