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67 Cards in this Set

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General Intelligence (g)

part of intelligence that influences our ability to think and learn on all intellectual tasks

Fluid Intelligence

-involves our ability to think on the spot

- related to capacity of working memory and related to size of cortex

Crystallized Intelligence

- factual knowledge about the world

- reflects long term memory

- hippocampus is particularly crucial brain region

True or False: Children who do well on one test of fluid intelligence tend to do well on tests of crystallized intelligence

False: children who do well on one test of fluid intelligence tend to do well on other tests of fluid intelligence but not necessarily on tests of crystallized intellgience

Describe how crystallized and fluid intelligence grow.

-Crystallized intelligence increases steadily from early in life to old age

- Fluid intelligence peaks in early adulthood around age 20 and slowly declines thereafter

Primary Mental Abilities

Intelligence involves seven primary mental abilities: word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization, numbering, rote memory, and perceptual speed

What theory says intelligence involves numerous processes?

Information-processing analyses

Three-stratum theory of intellgience

-Top = g

- Middle = moderately general abilities (including fluid and crystallized intelligence and skills similar to seven primary mental abilities

- specific processes

Is intelligence one thing, a few things, or many things?

All of the above

How do we measure intelligence?

Through observable behavior

Where do intelligence tests have their greatest success and widest application?

With children who are at least 5 or 6 years old

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

- most widely used instrument for children 6 years and older

- consistent with Carroll's three-stratum framework

- test yields not only an overall score but also separate scores on four moderately general abilities (verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed)

IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

- summary measure of a child's intelligence relative to that of other children of the same age

- a score of 100 is given to children who score exactly the mean for their age at the time the test is developed

On most IQ tests the standard deviation is _____

15 points

A standard deviation of 1 =

85-115 (68 % of participants)

Continuity of IQ scores

- scores are more stable at older ages (closer similarity of scores for 8-9 year olds than 4-5 year olds)

- although IQ scores tend to be similar, they are rarely identical

True or False: A child's IQ is more closely related to the child's later occupational success than is the socioeconomic status of the child's family, the school the child attends, or any other variable that has been studied



- the ability to inhibit actions, follow rules, and avoid impulsive reactions

- not measured in IQ test

Practical intelligence

- accurately reading other peoples emotions and intentions

- not measured in IQ tests

True or False: While IQ is a key contributor to educational, occupational, and economic success, other factors are also influential


Describe the influence of genes on intelligence.

- relatively modest in early childhood but becomes very large by adolescence and adulthood

True or False: Correlations between IQs of identical twins increase from preschool to adulthood, whereas correlations between the IQs of fraternal twins decrease


True or False: IQs of adopted children and those of their biological parents become increasingly correlated as the children become older, but the IQs of adopted children and their adoptive parents become less correlated as the children become older


Passive effects of environments children encounter due to their genotype

- children whose genotypes predispose them to enjoy reading are likely to be raised in homes with books, magazines, and newspapers, because their parents also like to read

Evocative effects of environments children encounter due to their genotype

-children eliciting or influencing other people's behavior

- even if a child's parents are not avid readers, they will read more bedtime stories to the child if he or she seems interested in the stories rather than bored by them

Active effects of environments children encounter due to their genotype

- children choosing environments they enjoy

- high school student who likes reading will borrow books from the library and obtain books in other ways, regardless of whether he or she was read to when young

HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment)

- designed to assess the families environments of children between birth and age 3

- children's IQ scores as well as math and reading achievement, are positively correlated with HOME measure of their family environment

- scores between HOME and IQ are CORRELATED not causally related

Effect of shared environment on IQ

- impoverished backgrounds- shared environment accounts for far more of the variance in IQ than genetics does

- affluent backgrounds- relative influence of shared environment and genetics is reversed

What is more important on performance on IQ exam: age or grade level?

-Grade level

- a child who is in 5th grade will do much better than a child who is older than him but in 4th grade

Average IQ scores during summer vacation

- Low socioeconomic status= scores drop

- High socioeconomic status= scores stay constant or rise slightly

Flynn Effect

average IQ scores have risen over the past 75 years

What is the cause of the Flynn Effect?

- gene pool has not changed, so the increase in IQ scores must be due to changes in the environment

- No change in scores of people in top 10%

- Large change in scores among those in the bottom 10%

- Better nutrition, better health care, and universal education

True or False: The more years children spend in poverty, the lower their IQs tend to be


True or False: Children of fathers who hold low status jobs perform more poorly than children whose fathers hold comparable jobs in Canada or Japan.


True or False: Children of fathers who hold high-status jobs perform as well as children whose fathers have comparable jobs in Canada and almost as well as those in Japan.


Why is it that children from impoverished homes in the United States do worse on the IQ test than children from impoverished homes in other developed countries?

Poor families in the United States are much poorer than their counterparts in many other developed countries

Some children who live in poverty overcome the odds and do well in school and in life. What distinguishes these resilient children from others in similar circumstances?

High-quality parenting can help children meet the challenges imposed by poverty

True or False: Average IQ scores of children of different racial and ethnic groups do differ


- Asian American, Euro American, Latino/Indian, African American

True or False: Latino children tend to have higher performance scores than verbal scores, while African american children have higher verbal potions than performance portions


What is a crucial fact that differentiates IQ scores

Different racial and ethnic groups describe children's performance only in environments in which the children live

Why are the current group differences between IQ scores getting smaller

Decreases in discrimination and inequality

Environmental Risk Scale

- more risks in a childs environment, the lower the childs IQ tended to be

- did not include any of the risk factors was around 115

- six or more risks was around 85

- number of risks was better predictor of IQ than any one particular risk

If two children have the same IQ at around age 4, but one child lives in an environment with more risk factors, at age 13..

the child facing more risk will have a lower IQ than the other child

Programs for Helping Poor children

- initially increased IQ but by end of program the IQ scores were the same as nonparticipants from impoverished neighborhoods

- however, more graduated from high school, lower arrest rates, fewer held back in school

Carolina Abecedarian Project

- started 6 moths continued until 5 yr olds

- benefits remained evident 15 years after end of program

-starting intervention programs early and continuing them for substantial periods of time can lead to lasting effects

Project Head Start

- beyond the end of Head Start, children's performance becomes indistinguishable from that of nonparticipants with similar backgrounds

Multiple Intelligence Theory

People possess 8 kinds of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, naturalistic, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and interpersonal abilities

Theory of Successful Intelligence

-Envisions intelligence as the ability to achieve success in life, given one's personal standards within one's sociocultural context

- degree to which people succeed depends on three types of abilities: analytic, practical, and creative

Five Stages of reading development

Stage 0 (birth-1 yr): phonemic awareness

Stage 1 ( 1st/2nd grades): phonological recoding skills

Stage 2 (2nd/3rd grades): fluency in reading

Stage 3 (4th-8th grades): acquire complex, new information from reading

Stage 4 (8th-12th grades): appreciate multiple viewpoints

Phonemic awareness

gaining knowledge of individual sounds within words

Phonological recording skills

ability to sound out words

Performance on _____________ tasks during kindergarten is the strongest predictor of children's ability to sound out and spell words in early grades--- stronger even than IQ or social-class backgrounds

phonemic-awareness tasks

What two ways can words be identified?

Phonological recoding and visually based retrieval

Visually based retrieval

processing a words meaning directly from its visual form

Strategy-choice process

choosing either visually based retrieval or phonological recoding based on the fastest approach that is likely to be correct

Reading comprehension involves forming a ______________ of the situation or idea depicted in the text and continuously updating it as new information appears

mental model

Comprehension monitoring

- keeping tack of understanding the text you are reading and rereading what you don't understand

- differentiates good readers from poor readers

True or False: If preschoolers from poor families were read to daily they too would become better readers


True or False: Children who have relatively advanced reading skills when they enter kindergarden tend to be better readers through elementary, middle, and high school


How does metacognitive understanding play a crucial role in writing?

- recognizing readers may not have same knowledge as the writer and that one therefore should include all the information that readers will need to allow them to grasp what is being said

- need to plan writing rather than just jumping into it

Mathematical disability

children have IQs in the normal range but are extremely poor at mathematics

Pre-K Mathematics

presents preschoolers with a variety of nth activities and includes a home component in which parents learn to help their children learn math concepts

Mathematical equality

idea that values on the two sides of equal sign must balance

Gesture speech mismatches

gesturing conveys more information than their verbal statements

What is the best way for children who initially show gesture-speech mismatches learn?

learn from instruction more than peers whose gesturing and speech are consistent

Two main reasons of differences in mathematical knowledge of different countries

- other countries spend much more time on math than the US does

- math instruction in these countries is more coherent

What is a good way children learn math

-in a way that is meaningful to them

- that's why child street vendors can do math so easily, because it relates to their profit