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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
period of life bounded by puberty and the assumption of adult responsibilites
period of physical development during which sexual reproduction first becomes possible
secondary sex characteristics
characteristics of gender
ex: depth of voice
begining of mestruation
formal operational stage
piagets final stage in cognitive development
logical thought
ability to hypothesize
think abstractly
able to deal with hypothetical situations
in formal operational stage you become
imaginary audience
aspect of adolscent egocentrism
belief as other people are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are
ex: everyones going to look at youre zit
people laugh and you think theyre laughing at you
personal fable
aspect of adolescent egocentrism
belief that we are invulnerable
ex: we wont fail class
youre a hero and youre life is a narrative
try drugs wont get addicted
Postconventional level (last stage of kohlbergs thoery)
a period during which moral judgments are derived from moral principle and peopl look to themselves to set moral standards
levels of postconventional stage
5- human needs against societies needs to maintain social order
6-people must follow universal ethical principle and their own conscience, even if it means breaking the law
adolescents who feel close to their parents are more
likely to show greater independence
higher self esteem
better school performance
fewer psychological problems
Ego identity versus role diffusion
Eriksons 5th stage of psychosocial deveopment
-adolescents who do not develop dgo identity may experience role diffusion
identity statuses
identity statuses
marcias system
active questioning and searching among alternatives in the quest to establish goals balues and beliefs
marcias system
a stable investment in ones goals values and beilefs
identity diffusion
marcias system
lack of a sense of who one is or what one stands for with no active exporation
marica system
automatic adoption of a point of view held by authority figures in ones life
make desicions without considering alternatives
foreclosed individuals are
authoritarian and inflexible
marcias system
person whom is actively exploring alternatives in attmpt to make choices with regard to occupation, ideological beliefs, in effert to form an identity
identity achievment
marcias system
individuals whom have explored alternatives and developed commitments
legal age
seperation from ones family origin
financial independance
early adulthood
when you establish career or path in life
emerging adulthood
allow young people an extended oppertunity to explore thier roles in life.
ex: parental funding of college or student loans
Arnetts proposition of influences that spurred the rise of emerging adulthood
change to information based economy
birthcontrol allows pregnancy to be held back
eriksons term to describe the extended quest for identity among people who dwell in adolescence
early adulthood
time of feeling strong, growing more aware of the difference between ideals and realities, stirving intensely, becoming established and settling in
Postformal stage
stage of cognitive development where individual has achieved knowledge that judgments of people are made within certain value systems, has begun to narrow infinite possibilities into practical choices, and has overcome the egocentrism of adolescent
the dream
levinsons term for the overriding drive of youth to become someone important, to leave mark on history
intimacy vs isolation
task of developing intimate relationships
failure leads to retreating in to isolation and loneliness
age 30 transition
reassessment of the goals and values an individual had in their 20s
brain developments during adolescence
corical regions in high use tend to thicken with new dendrites and synapses
frontal lobes (exectuive funcioning) are less active thatn those of adultsamygdalas are more active

all of which accounts for adolescents poorer judgment and higher risk taking compared to adults
what cognitive developments occur during adolescence
formal operational thinking but not everyone reaches it
two consequences of adolescent egocentrism are the imaginary audience and the personal fable
Narcias identity statuses
identity diffusion
identity achievement
what ognitive developments occur during early adulthood?
according to perry, young adults may come to realize that judgments of good or bad are often made from a certain belief system so their thinking grows more complex and less absolute. Labouvie-Vief notes taht young adults often learn to narrow endless possibilites to practical choices
what social and emotinonal developments take place during early adulthood
early adulthood is generally characterized by efforts to advance in the business world and the development of intimates, more young adults remain single or cohabit than in earlier generations, but marriage remains the most common lifestyle.
erikson characterized early adulthood as the stage of____________ versus isolation
intimacy versus isolation
middle adulthood
crystalized intelligence
knowledge shown through vocab and knowldge of world affairs
what physical developments occur during middle adulthood
gradual decline in strength
women go through menopause
what cognitive delopmens occur in middle adulthood
crystalized intelligence
fluid intelligence-declines
fluid intelligence
mental flexability to rapidly solve new problems
generativity vs stagnation
erkisons term for the crisis of middle adulthood, characterized by hte task of being productive and contributin to younger generations
ex: producing children or facing destructive effects on self esteem
Midlife transition
levinsons term for 40-45 year olds
which are characterized by a shift in psychological perspective from viewing ourselves in terms of years lived to viewing ourselves in terms of the years we have left
midlife crisis
crisis experience by many people during the midlife transition when they realize that life may be more than halfway over and reassess their achievements in terms of their dreams
identity certaintity
strong and clear sense of who one is and who one stands for
confident power
feelings of self confidence
themes used to assess development of personality in women from young adulthood through late adulthood
identity certainty
confident power
concern with aging
personal distress
sandwhich generation
middle aged individuals who take care of their own children and their aging parents
what physical changes occur as people advance to late adulthood
older people show less sensory acuity and their reaction time lengthens. Immune system weakens
loss of bone density
sexual response declines
why do we age
programmed theories of aging see aging as a response to genetic instructions
cellular damage theories see aging as resulting from damage to cells
clouding of the lens of the eye
abnormally high fluid pressure in the eye
loss of sharpness of hearing due to age related degenative change in the ear
programmed theories
see aging as the result of genetic instructions
celleclar damage theories
aging results from damages to cells
cellula clock theory
focuses on the built in limits of cell division
protective segments of dna at the tips of chromosomes
-shrink each time cells divide
hormonal stress theory
endocrine system
-releases hormones into the bloodstream
corticosteroids and adrenaline are elevated following illnesses making the body more bulnerable to chronic conditions.
immunological theory
production of antibodies declines with age
wear and tear theory
over the years our bodies become less capable of repairing themselves
programmed theories of aging
cellular clock theory
hormonal stress theory
immunological theory
free radical theory
accumulation of free radical.
-caused by oxidation possibly damaging cell proteins, membranes, and dna.
as we age our bodies produce fewer antioxidants
cross linking
cell proteins bind to one another thus toughening tissue.
stiffens collagen
results in coarse dry skin
cross linking theory
the stiffening of body proteins accelerates and eventually breaks down bodily processes
cellular damage theories of aging
wear and tear
free radical
cross linking
what cognitive developments take place during late adulthood
memory fucnioning and processing declines with age
verbal skills remain or increase
alzheimers disease is characterized by cognitive deterioration inmemory language and problem solving
condtition characterized by deteriorationof cognitve funcioning
dimentia is caused by
disease process that damage brain tissue
ego integrity vs despair
eriksons crisis of late adulthood characterized by the task of maintaing ones sense of identity despite physcial detiroration
knowledge coupld with good judgment
erikson labeled late adulthood the stage of
ego versus despair
selective optimization with compensation
reshaping of ones life to concentrate on what one considers important and meaningful in the face of physcial decline and possible cognitive imairment
Kubler Ross
five stages of dying through many patients undergo
5 stages of Kubler ross
final acceptance
emotional state of longing and deprivation that is characterized by felings of grief and sense of loss
emotional suffering resulting from death
culturally prescibed ways of displaying grief
ex:widows are expected to wear black for the remainder of their lives
Stages of grieving
shock numbness
added to grief stages with numness- disbelief, seperation distress, depression- mourning and recovery