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54 Cards in this Set

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What is a planned activity scheduling?
intervention where a behavior change agent arranges for a client to engage in an active, desirable behavior in situations that're likely to elicit a problem behavior thus reducing opportunities for the client to engage in the problem behavior
Ar eplanned activity scheduling done alone?
No, done with prompts also
What is an example of a planned activity scheduling?
sleep hygiene that helps you sleep
What is reinforcement therapy?
the use of CONSEQUENCES that increase the likelihood that behavior will be repeated
What is a form of reinforcement therapy?
Operant conditioning
What's a type of learning in which behavior is increased or decreased by systematiclaly changing the consequences of the behavior
Operant conditioning
What is positive reinforcement?
Process in which the INTRO OF A STIMULUS as a consequence of a behavior INCREASES the likelihood that the behavior will be perfomred again
What is the process in which the WITHDRAWAL of a stimulus as a consequence of a bheavior INCREASES the likeli hood that the behavior will be performed again?
Negative reinforcement
Which type of reinfocement is it when a child is nagging, the parent gives in, and the likelihood of the nagging occurring again is more likely
Positive reinforcement
What type of reinforcement is it when we take aspirin?
Negative
What type of reinfocement is it when we drive at the speed limit?
negative
What are some examples of positive reinforcers?
praise, money, attention, tokens
What type of reinforcers are avoidance of anxiety, depression, or drug urges?
negative
If as a result of a behavior the stimulus is applied, the consequence is desirable and the behavior is likely to increase it is _________reinforcement
positive
When a stimulus is withdrawn and the behavir is likely to increase then it is __________ reinforcement
negative
When a stimulus and consequence result in decreasing the behavior it is a form of
punishment
A reinforcer in the form of a material object is
a. tangible reinforcer
b. social reinforcer
tangible
What's a social reinforcer?
reinforcers tha consist of attnetion, praise, approval, acknowledgement or affirmation from others
What are some example of token reinforcers?
symbolic that can be exchanged for desired tangible reinforcers like stickers, tokens, money, points
consequences that people receive as a regular part of their daily lives
natural reinforcers
What are the four benefits of social reinforcers?
easy to admin, don't cost, can be admin immediately, they are natural reinforcers
What is the premack principle?
the notion that a higher probablity behavior (one that occurs at a much higher frequency) will serve a s areinforcer for a lower probability behavior (one that occurs less)
What is this an example of? a parent who establishes the rule that htier child cannot watch tv until they do their homework... thus watching tv is the reinforcer sed for the behavior of completing your hw.
premack principle
What is another exmaple of the premack principle?
no dessert until you finish your veggies
What's shaping?
reinforcement of components of the target behavior that are successive approximations of the complete target behavior
What are reinforcement guidelines to maximize for transfer, generalization and maintenance?
1. R should be CONTINGENT on the client's performance of the target behavior
2. R should be admin IMMEDIATELY after the client performs target behavior
3. R should be CONSISTENT
4. Client should be AWARE that reinforcer is a consequence of the target behavior
What are more reinforcement guidelines?
Continuous reinforcement initially, natural reinforcers (that real world will use), and r should be kept POTENT (use reinforcers they don't have access to, dispence in sml amounts, swithc reinforcers periodically, use social vs. material)
What is continuous reinforcement schedule?
schedule of reinforcement in which the target behavior is reinfoced every time it is performed (useful initiate target behavior)
Schedule of reinfocement in which only some of the occurrences of the target behavior are reinforced. Is more efficient, less costly, promotes transfer, generalization and LONG TERM MAINTENANCE of target behavior.
Intermittent reinforcement schedule
What is a generalized reinforcer?
consequences that are reinforcing for many people
What are some examples of generalized reinforcers?
food, money, and social attention
What is an indirect method of decelerating undesirable behaviors where an acceleration target behavior is reinforced instead of the undesirable behavior
deeceleration behavior therapy and differential reinforcement
What is differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors?
indirectly deceleration a maladaptive behavior by reinforcing acceleration target behaviors that PRECLUDE the simultaneous expression of the deceleration target behavior. (Reinforce clapping to get rid of nose clapping)
What are differential reinforcement of competing behavior?
indirectly ecelerating a maladaptive behavior by reinforceing acceleration target behaviors that INTERFERE with the simultaneous expression of the deceleration target behavior
What's fading?
The gradual removal of prompts as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
Dindirectly decelerating a maladaptive behavior by reinforcing any behaviors other than the deceleration target behavior is what?
differential reinforcement of other behaviors
Indirectly decelerating a maladpative behavior by reinforceing less frequent performance of the eceleration target behavior
differential reinforcement of low response rates
Used when the goal is to decrease but not necessarily to eliminate a target behavior.
What is functional communication training?
variant of differential reinforcement that teaches clients acceptable ways to communicate the desire for a reinforcer as an alternative to their typical unacceptable (maladaptive) means (deceleration target behavior) of communicating the same message (reinforce new communication, extinguish old)
What is a therapy in which a direct method of decelerating undesirable behaviors via chaning the consequences
consequential deceleration behavior therapy
When is consequential deceleration beavior therapy useful?
-diff to find suitable alternative acceleration target behav
-only partial decrease to decel target
-dangerous behavior
-works by either eliminating reinforcement OR
-MAKES CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAV UNDESIRABLE (extinciton and time out or response cost, overcorrectional and physically aversive consequ)
what is extinction?
process of witholding or withdawing reinforcers in order to decrease maladaptive behaviors (social, use ignoring)
What are the problems with extinction
slow, 25% of time, problems with transfer, spontaneous recovery, must be able to id reinforcer first, must be completely witheld always
What's time out from pos reinfocement?
consequential deceleration theray in which a clients access to GENERALIZED REINFORCERS is withdrawn fro a few min after client has maladaptive behavior
what's response cost?
consequential deceleration therapy in which a client's access to a valued item or privelage is removed as a consequence of performing maladaptive behaivior
What type of punishment is best?
negative
What's overcorrection?
consequential deceleration therapy in which a client corrects the harmful effects of a deceleration target behavior (resiitution) and then intensively practices an acceleration target behavior (pos practice like community service)
aversive therapy includes
avoidance bheav, emo responses, pepetuation effects
What's an example of avoidance behavior?
punishing agentsis avoided by child
Emo responses are
child develops anger and it takes either punishing agent or smaller people things leads to bullying
perpetuation effects
kids pepetuate action as adults
What is physically aversive consequences?
application of physically painful and unpleasnat undesirable consequences in order to decelerate a maladaptive target behavior
What's covert sensizization
aversion therapy in which a n aversive stimulus and maladaptive target behavior are associated (clas cond) completely in client's imagination
Aversion therapy has behavior and unpleasant stimulus ____________
simultaneously
Reinforcement sampling
A procedure for allowing students to come into contact with potential reinforcers and for teachers to determine which reinforcers are likely to be effective with individual students.